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- W.J. Flywheel, Webporium Curator



1. Rendezvous with Yesterday

September 9, 1966

"We have hit an iceberg, just as the two of you predicted.
How could you have known?"

- Capt. Malcolm Smith

Congress has poured seven billion dollars into Project Tic-Toc. A revolutionary new technology intended to access past and future. The Time Tunnel is not quite ready despite a decade of work and Senator Clark declares his intention to cut funding and abandon the project. To prove the concept, Dr. Tony Newman prematurely enters the Time Tunnel, and the project head, Doug Phillips, must go back to save him as they both fight for survival on the sinking Titanic.

Director: Irwin Allen

Writer: Shimon Wincelberg / Harold Jack Bloom

Guest starring: Michael Rennie, Susan Hampshire, Gary Merrill, Don Knight, Michael Haynes, John Winston, Brett Parker, Wesley Lau, Gerald Michenaud

The elevators used in Tic-Toc came from the Metaluna set seen in This Island Earth (1955). The scenes of the Time Tunnel underground complex are the same as those in Forbidden Planet representing one of the service columns in the giant Krell machine buried under the surface of Altair IV.

The sound effect heard when the Time Tunnel is powering up was used in many Twentieth Century-Fox productions. Among others, the effect was used for both the Jupiter II from the Lost in Space (1965) series and Charlton Heston's spaceship in Planet of the Apes (1968).

The car in which they travel from the senator's jet and that disappears into the ground on the way to Tic-Toc is a 1965 Imperial LeBaron, made by Chrysler Corp.

Captain of the Titanic was not named Malcolm Smith. His name was Edward John Smith (1850 - 1912) and he did die when the ship sank.

Actor Dennis Hopper is seen in the background after Tony appears on the deck of the Titanic; and just after Doug helps the little boy into a lifeboat. Hopper can be seen behind Doug disguised as a woman. At least three scenes were shot with Hopper, but were cut before the show aired.

In the wireless room when Doug tries to explain to the Captain the ship will sink, a photograph of the Titanic can be seen. This picture was taken by a private photographer and not released until after the sinking.

The edition of the N.Y. Sentinel newspaper's headline refers to the S.S. Titanic. "SS" is a designation for American merchant vessels. The term "Royal Mail Steamer" is the proper designation for British merchant vessels and Titanic was officially "RMS Titanic."

Just prior to the iceberg collision, Captain Smith is given a drink that appears to be alcoholic, but he was well known to never drink while at sea despite myths.

At one point, Doug tells Captain Smith that the Titanic only has enough lifeboats "for 750 people"; in reality, the Titanic's 20 lifeboats (16 wooden and 4 "collapsible") had space for a total of 1, 178 people. The estimated 704 to 715 actual Titanic survivors did not represent the total number that could have been saved had each and every lifeboat been filled to capacity. Lack of proper lifeboat drills, poor communication between crew and passengers, hesitation of some passengers to get into a lifeboat early on, and a host of other unfortunate issues contributed to many lifeboats being launched that fateful night with far less people than they could have carried.

The Captain says there are only about 2,300 souls on board. There is no conclusive number of people on-board, but the estimate is there were 2,435 passengers and 892 crew for a total of 3,327.

When Doug comes on board the Titanic, he exits the boiler room. The room has a sign on the door reading "authorized personnel only". But being a ship from the United Kingdom, it should have been spelled "authorised".

Ragtime music is repeatedly played on the expensive upper decks of the Titanic. Such music would have been considered far too lowbrow. In fact, music on the Titanic was provided by a classical string ensemble.

Shortly after the Captain has released Tony and Doug, the two scientists hurry down a narrow corridor. A boom mike can be seen hovering under a header above a flight of stairs as the two approach them.

2. One Way to the Moon

September 16, 1966

"Let's face it Colonel, if we don't get them off the ship, we're all gonna die."

- Astronaut Beard

Doug and Tony escape death aboard the Titanic land land 10 years in the future on board the Mars Excursion Module during liftoff. Their extra weight endangers the mission and the crew suspects the time travellers are spies. The real spy turns out to a crewman named Beard who, ten years in the past at Project TicToc, attempted to sabotage the Time Tunnel.

Director: Harry Harris

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Warren Stevens, Larry Ward, James Callahan, Barry Kelley, Ben Cooper, Ross Elliott, Dick Tufeld, Wesley Lau

The mission control voice is provided by Dick Tufeld, who also voiced the Robot in Lost in Space (1965), another Irwin Allen production.

The uniform patches worn by the MEM crew are the same patches worn by the "Spindrift" crew in Land of the Giants (1968), another Irwin Allen production. They were also used as insignia for the uniforms worn by members of "Galaxy" organization, in the film Our Man Flint (1966).

Much of the spacewalking and moonwalking scenes are re-used footage from the 1950 George Pal film Destination Moon (1950).

Fires are shown burning on the moon, Astronauts hear and react to objects falling on the moon and when the fuel depot explodes, here is a huge noise. The Moon has no atmosphere to sustain flames or to carry the sound.

The rocket shown on the launch pad and during the early part of the flight is vastly different from the one shown later in the flight and for the moon landing. Initially, it's mostly white with a blunt nose, multiple engines and no fins. Later, it dark-colored, with a pointed nose cone, a single engine and large fins.

During the fight scene between the saboteur and Tony at the supply outpost, their oxygen tanks change back and forth between realistic ones (cylindrical) and fake painted boxes between shots.

The Project: Tic-Toc Time Tunnel base is a US Government operation based in Arizona. Why would the Sargeant trying to arrest a saboteur be armed with a German MP 40 from World War 2?

3. End of the World

September 23, 1966

"I agree with the General. I think we should gamble on it."

- Dr. Ann MacGregor

Doug and Tony escape the moon only to materialize in an old mine shaft in 1910, when Halley's Comet is about to pass by the earth. Tony is caught in a cave-in with nearly two hundred miners, while Doug is unable to get help because a local astronomer has everyone in a panic, having convinced them they're all doomed because of the comet.

Director: Sobey Martin / William Welch

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Paul Fix, Paul Carr, Gregory Morton, Nelson Leigh, Robert Adler, James Westerfield

Midway through the episode, as technicians enter the time tunnel, they leave vertical shadows on the rear of the tunnel, thus revealing that the back end of the tunnel is a painting.

The shadow of some equipment (possibly the boom mic) appears on the wall behind Tony when he first confronts the sheriff.

Although Halley's Comet is visible to the eye during its periodic visits to the inner solar system, it does not appear to the naked eye as a huge ball of fire, as portrayed in "End of the World".

According to the Halley family, their name is actually pronounced Hall-Lee not Hail-Lee.

No astronomer in 1910 could possibly have miscalculated a collision with Halley's Comet. Even at its closest, it was nearly 14 million miles from Earth.

If, as this story suggests, it was believed in 1910 that Halley's comet was heading straight to destroy earth, there would have been contemporaneous records of an impending tragedy by way of newspapers, radio broadcasts, etc, which would have been accessible today (or at least in 1966 when this was made). There aren't any in existence, so the story of such an historical scenario does not make sense.

4. The Day the Sky Fell In

September 30, 1966

"Or there's the possibility that if our Tony dies in 1941, little Tony might cease to exist. We've got get them both out! Both Tony's!"

- Dr. Ann MacGregor

It's December 6th, 1941, and Dr. Tony Newman confronts his own past at Pearl Harbor and goes to find his father, who disappeared during the bombing. Tic Tic Project staff realize that if the young Tony (who was also present at Pearl Harbor) isn't rescued, then "their" Tony will vanish from history.

Director: William Hale

Writer: Ellis St. Joseph

Guest starring: Linden Chiles, Lew Gallo, Bob Okazaki, Jerri Fujikawa, Shuji J. Nozawa, Caroline Kido, Susan Flannery, Sheldon Golomb, Frankie Kabott, Patrick Culliton, Robert Riordan

The flag outside of the Japanese headquarters is a modern design. The flag in use during World War 2 has red rays emanating from the center circle.

Tony told Captain Smith that he was born in 1938. However, in this episode, he tells Doug that he was seven years old on December 7, 1941, the day that Pearl Harbor was attacked.

Tony tells Doug that his father was a Lieutenant Commander. However, when Commander Newman walks into the Neal home in dress uniform, his insignia tells us that he is a full Commander.

During the attack, Tony is knocked out by a flying piece of debris and is shown lying flat on his back. A few minutes later, just as he regains consciousness, he's lying face-down and on the other side of the street.

When Tony and Doug are leaving the house at gunpoint it is getting dark outside, yet next when the Time Tunnel view shows the ships at sea it is clearly daylight.

Scenes of the attack viewed through the tunnel are black and white while all other scenes are in color. Why would just these be in black and white? It appears the Time Tunnel could only see black and white stock footage.

5. The Last Patrol

October 7, 1966

"The trouble is history doesn't always record everything.
Like, two anonymous suspected spies, executed in the wilderness."

- Dr. Doug Phillips

In 1815 one of the final battles of the War of 1812 was fought near New Orleans, Lousiana. Doug and Tony materialize behind British lines and soon find themselves in the custody of Colonel Southall, a man history records as "The Butcher" because of a disastrous mistake of sending his men into the strongest flank of the American forces. Meanwhile, Southall's descendant, a general in the modern British Army, visits the TicToc. General Phil Southall insists on returning to the past. He's dying of cancer, and Kirk reluctantly grants the general, an old friend, his last request. After travel through the Time Tunnel, Southall helps Doug escape and then confronts his ancestor.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Carroll O'Connor, John Napier, Michael Pate, David Watson, John Winston

When Gen. Phil Southall is transferred back to 1815, he is shown moving through the time vortex. Throughout the run of the series, more than a dozen characters are transferred by the Tunnel, but this is the only time that anyone other than Tony and Doug is shown in the vortex. The others just disappear from one time and appear in another.

The British 7th Regiment was never part of the British order of battle that faught at the Battle of New Orleans, however, the Scottish troops depicted were the 93rd Highlanders and they did fight, taking frightful casualties.

The Battle of New Orleans occurred on January 8th 1815, not on January 7th as said in this episode. The Battle of New Orleans actually occurred after the end of the War of 1812. The Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24th, 1814.

While wearing the correct insignia, Phil Southall should be referred to as simply Brigadier. The British Army eliminated the rank of Brigadier General in 1921, replacing it with Brigadier a few years later. Note that the British do not refer to Brigadiers as a Generals Officer. The American Army still has Brigadier Generals.

6. Crack of Doom

October 14, 1966

"The time warp, obviously. Tony came back with such great acceleration, he was able to do all these things in between two beats of a microsecond of time."

- Dr. Raymond Swain

On the island of Krakatoa in 1883, time travelers Doug and Tony try to convince a British scientist that the volcano is about to erupt in one of history's biggest explosions. The eruption destroyed the island, encircled the globe with ash, and caused a tsunami that killed more than 36,000.

Director: William Hale

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Ellen Burstyn, Torin Thatcher, Victor Lundin, George Matsui

7. Revenge of the Gods

October 21, 1966

"Ulysses may think we are gods but apparently in ancient Greece the gods were drafted in the army."

- Dr. Tony Newman

Doug and Tony are transported to 1200 BC in the middle of the war between Greeks and Trojans. They are captured by Ulysses' men and their knowledge of history makes Ulysses believe that they are gods from the Olympus. When Doug is captured by the traitor Sardis and brought to Troy, he meets Helen. Meanwhile Tony "inspires" the construction of the Trojan Horse and joins the team that will break in Troy inside the horse to rescue Helen and Doug.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Allan Balter / William Read Woodfield

Guest starring: John Doucette, Dee Hartford, Paul Carr, Joseph Ruskin, Kevin Hagen, Abraham Sofaer, Wesley Lau

The footage where the Trojan people bring in the Trojan Horse comes from the 1956 movie, Helen of Troy.

The sub machine gun that MSgt Jigs takes back in time is an MP-40 Schmeiser. This was used by German soldiers in the 2nd World War.

This episode is told from the Roman mythology of the Trojan War. In this version Odysseus becomes Ulysses and the Greek gods Zeus, Hera, Athena and Aphrodite are referred to as their later Roman equivalents: Jupiter, Juno, Minerva and Venus. In a another part of the Roman mythology, the decedents of those who survived and escaped Troy went on to found the Roman Empire.

The opening scenes of battle are from the 1962 movie "The 300 Spartans".

Mounted warriors are shown using saddles with stirrups. Saddles did not come into use in Europe until 200 B.C. and stirrups about 650 A.D., 1,000 and 1,850 years respectively after the events depicted here. The stirrup is what made mounted warriors practical; around 1200 B.C., horses would have been limited to drawing war chariots.

No explanation is given for how Tony and Doug can either understand & speak fluent Ancient Greek, or how the Ancient Greeks understand and speak fluent English. Universal translator perhaps?

The tunic Paris is wearing clearly has a zipper at the back - an item that had yet to be invented.

The first soldier Tony and Doug meet has what it looks like an iron sword. The time period is the Greek Golden Age, and their weapons would be made of bronze.

When the soldier points to Troy, a shot of the city of Athens is shown instead. Also, Athens is shown as it would look like in 1966, not during the Trojan War.

The symbols on the shields of Ulysses men is the Greek capitol "L" for Lakedaemonia (Sparta). Ulysses was king of Ithaca, not Sparta.

While Sardis and Tony sword-fight in Ulysses' tent, a large shield is struck by Sardis' sword, scraping the brown paint off and revealing the white material beneath. Moments later, in defeat Sardis throws a lance, the shield is intact.

8. Massacre

October 28, 1966

"It's no use Tony. He's lost in a dream of glory."

- Dr. Doug Phillips

Doug and Tony are transported to South Dakota, near Little Bighorn in the summer of 1876 and witness soldiers slaughtered by Indians in the middle of the desert. They are hunted and captured by three Indians; however Doug is rescued by the Trumpeter Tim that survived the massacre and is bringing a dispatch from General Crook to General George Armstrong Custer. Custer refuses to believe Doug's tale while Tony tries to convince Sitting Bull to approach Custer peacefully. In the end Tony and Doug are forced to watch as history plays itself.

Director: Murray Golden

Writer: Carey Wilber

Guest starring: Lawrence Montaigne, Joe Maross, Bruce Mars, George Mitchell, Jim Halferty, Christopher Dark, John Pickard, Paul Comi, Perry Lopez

Whit Bissell who plays General Kirk previously played George Armstrong Custer in Cheyenne: The Broken Pledge (1957).

Joe Maross who plays George Custer was 43 when this episode was filmed. The real George Custer was 35 at the time of his death in June, 1876.

In this episode the Tunnel scientists are struggling to fix the exact location of Sitting Bull's camp. The exact location of the camp was well known in the 1960s.

Tim McGinnis identifies himself as a trumpeter. In actuality, he'd probably be identified as bugler.

People are usually confused about ranks in this era. For example, Custer was an officer in the regular army - the United States Army. During the Civil War, he took leave of absence to serve in another army - the United States Volunteers - and rose to the rank of major general of United States Volunteers. When the volunteers were disbanded after the war he lost that rank but remained a captain in the United States Army, and was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Seventh US Cavalry in 1866. Custer's rank in the Volunteers was not a brevet rank; it was a substantive rank just like his rank of Lt. Col. in the regular army. Brevet ranks were mostly honorary ranks. Lieutenant Colonel George Custer had the brevet ranks of Brigadier General and Major General in the regular army, just as Captain Benteen and Captain Tom Custer both had the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Officers had the right to be addressed by their brevet ranks. Thus Lt. Col. George A. Custer was called "General" and captains Benteen and Tom Custer were called "Colonel".

... Montanta Territory 1976

The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and also commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand. The battle took place on June 25th–26th, 1876, and was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, who were led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall. The U.S. 7th Cavalry, a force of 700 men, suffered a major defeat while under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer. Five of the 7th Cavalry's twelve companies were annihilated and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew and a brother-in-law.

In 1875, the President Grant (left) attempted to buy the Black Hills region from the Sioux. When the Sioux refused to sell, they were ordered to report to reservations by the end of January, 1876. Mid-winter conditions made it impossible for them to comply. The administration labeled them "hostiles" and tasked the Army with bringing them in. Custer was to command an expedition planned for the spring, part of a three-pronged campaign.

Custer's 7th Cavalry was originally scheduled to leave Fort Abraham Lincoln on April 6th, 1876, but on March 15th he was summoned to Washington to testify at congressional hearings investigating alleged corruption involving Secretary of War William W. Belknap. President Grant's brother Orvil and traders granted monopolies at frontier Army posts and had been selling these lucrative trading post positions where soldiers were required to make their purchases. Custer himself had experienced first hand the high prices being charged at Fort Lincoln. After Custer testified Belknap was impeached and the case sent to the Senate for trial. The Congressional investigation had created a serious rift with Grant. Custer had written articles published anonymously in The New York Herald that exposed trader post kickback rings and during the investigation, Custer testified on hearsay evidence that President Grant's brother Orvil was involved. Grant had also not forgotten that Custer had once arrested his son Fred for drunkenness. Infuriated, Grant decided to retaliate by stripping Custer of his command in the upcoming campaign.

Brig. Gen. Alfred Alfred Terry protested, saying he had no available officers of rank qualified to replace Custer. Custer was advised to meet personally with President Grant before leaving Washington but each request was refused. Finally, Custer gave up and took a train to Chicago on May 2nd, planning to rejoin his regiment. A furious Grant ordered Custer arrested for leaving Washington without permission. The arrest sparked public outrage and The New York Herald called Grant the "modern Caesar". Grant relented but insisted that Terry, not Custer, personally command the expedition. Grant was worried that if the "Sioux campaign" failed without Custer, then Grant would be blamed for ignoring the recommendations of senior Army officers to reinstate Custer. On May 8th, Custer was told that he would lead the expedition, but only under Terry's direct supervision. Custer planned to "cut loose" from Terry and operate independently.

By the time of Custer's Black Hills expedition in 1874, the level of conflict and tension between the U.S. and many of the Plains Indians tribes (including the Lakota Sioux and the Cheyenne) had become exceedingly high. European-Americans continually broke treaty agreements and advanced further westward, resulting in violence and acts of depredation by both sides. To take possession of the Black Hills (and thus the gold deposits), and to stop Indian attacks, the U.S. decided to corral all remaining free Plains Indians.

George Armstrong Custer (1839 – 1876, right) was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Custer graduated from West Point in 1861 at the bottom of his class, but as the Civil War was just starting, trained officers were in immediate demand. His qualities as a cavalry leader were recognized, and he was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers at age 23. Only a few days after his promotion, he fought at Gettysburg. In 1864, Custer served in the Overland Campaign and in Sheridan's army in the Shenandoah Valley. His division blocked the Army of Northern Virginia's final retreat and received the first flag of truce from the Confederates, and Custer was present at Robert E. Lee's surrender to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox. After the war, Custer was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the Regular Army and was sent west to fight in the Indian Wars. His dramatic end was as controversial as the rest of his career, and reaction to his life and career remains deeply divided. Custer's bold leadership in battle is unquestioned, but his legend was partly of his own fabrication through his extensive journalism. Custer has been called a "media personality", and he valued good public relations and used the print media of his era effectively. He frequently invited journalists to accompany his campaigns (one, Associated Press reporter Mark Kellogg, died at the Little Bighorn), and their favorable reporting contributed to his high reputation. Public response to the Great Sioux War varied in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the promotion of Custer's reputation continued after his death with the energetic lobbying of his wife Elizabeth (Libbie) Custer throughout her long widowhood.

Elizabeth (Libbie) Clift Custer (1842 – 1933, left) was an American author and public speaker, and the wife of George Armstrong Custer. She spent most of their marriage in relatively close proximity to him despite his numerous military campaigns in the American Civil War and subsequent postings on the Great Plains as a commanding officer in the United States Cavalry. Left nearly destitute in the aftermath of her husband's death, she became an outspoken advocate for his legacy. She would write several bestselling books about their life on the wild frontier, this as well as lectures she gave, restored Custer’s reputation while also securing for her the financial security he had failed to provide. Her three books, Boots and Saddles (1885), Tenting on the Plains (1887), and Following the Guidon (1890) are generally considered to be largely factually accurate, though were clearly slanted in George's favor. Her efforts were successful. The image of a steely General Custer leading his men against overwhelming odds only to be wiped out while defending their position to the last man became as much a part of American lore as the Alamo. Despite having spent her life traveling extensively throughout the United States and the world, she never visited the valley of Little Big Horn and later in life stated she was convinced that the indians were deeply wronged. Elizabeth Custer never remarried and died in her Park Avenue apartment of a heart attack on April 4th, 1933, only four days short of her 91st birthday.

Custer married Elizabeth Clift Bacon on February 9th, 1864. Elizabeth was not initially impressed with him, and her father, Judge Daniel Bacon, disapproved of Custer as a match because he was the son of a blacksmith. It was not until well after Custer had been promoted to the rank of brevet brigadier general that he gained the approval of Judge Bacon.

In November 1868, following the Battle of Washita River, Custer was alleged (by Captain Frederick Benteen, chief of scouts Ben Clark, and Cheyenne oral tradition) to have unofficially married Mo-nah-se-tah, daughter of the Cheyenne chief Little Rock in the winter or early spring of 1868–1869. Cheyenne oral history tells that she bore a child, fathered by Custer in late 1869. Some historians, however, believe that Custer had become sterile after contracting gonorrhea while at West Point and that the father was, in actuality, his brother Thomas. Clarke's description in his memoirs included the statement, "Custer picked out a fine looking one and had her in his tent every night."

Custer was quite fastidious in his grooming. Early in their marriage, Elizabeth wrote, "He brushes his teeth after every meal. I always laugh at him for it, also for washing his hands so frequently." The common media image of Custer's appearance at the Last Stand, buckskin coat and long, curly blonde hair, is wrong. Although he and several other officers wore buckskin coats on the expedition, they took them off and packed them away because it was so hot. According to Soldier, an Arikara scout, "Custer took off his buckskin coat and tied it behind his saddle." Further, Custer, whose hair was thinning, joined a similarly balding Lieutenant Varnum and "had the clippers run over their heads" before leaving Fort Lincoln.

The Battle of the Little Bighorn had far-reaching consequences for the Natives. It was the beginning of the end of the 'Indian Wars' and has even been referred to as "the Indians' last stand" in the area. Within 48 hours of the battle, the large encampment on the Little Bighorn broke up into smaller groups because there was not enough game and grass to sustain a large congregation of people and horses. The scattered Sioux and Cheyenne feasted and celebrated during July with no threat from soldiers. After their celebrations, many of the Natives returned to the reservation. Soon the number of warriors amounted to only about 600.

Both Brig. Gen. George Crook and Brig. Gen. Alfred Terry remained immobile for seven weeks after the battle, awaiting reinforcements and unwilling to venture out against the Sioux and Cheyenne until they had at least 2,000 men. They finally took the field against the Natives forces in August. General Nelson A. Miles took command of the effort in October 1876. In May 1877, Sitting Bull (above left) escaped to Canada. Within days, Crazy Horse (below right) surrendered at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. The Great Sioux War ended on May 7th with Miles' defeat of a remaining band of Miniconjou Sioux.

Ownership of the Black Hills, which had been a focal point of the 1876 conflict, was determined by an ultimatum issued by the Manypenny Commission, according to which the Sioux were required to cede the land to the United States if they wanted the government to continue supplying rations to the reservations. Threatened with forced starvation, the Natives ceded Paha Sapa to the United States, but the Sioux never accepted the legitimacy of the transaction. They lobbied Congress to create a forum to decide their claim and subsequently litigated for 40 years; the United States Supreme Court in the 1980 decision United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians acknowledged that the United States had taken the Black Hills without just compensation. The Sioux refused the money subsequently offered and continue to insist on their right to occupy the land.

The site of the battle was first preserved as a United States national cemetery in 1879 to protect the graves of the 7th Cavalry troopers. In 1881, a marble obelisk was erected in their honor. In 1890, marble blocks were added to mark the places where the U.S. cavalry soldiers fell. In 1946, it was re-designated as the Custer Battlefield National Monument, reflecting its association with Custer. Beginning in the early 1970s, there was concern within the National Park Service over the name Custer Battlefield National Monument failing to adequately reflect the larger history of the battle between two cultures. Congress later renamed the site the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. Nearly 100 years later, ideas about the meaning of the battle have become more inclusive. The United States government acknowledged that Native American sacrifices also deserved recognition at the site. The 1991 bill changing the name of the national monument also authorized an Indian Memorial to be built near Last Stand Hill in honor of Lakota and Cheyenne warriors. On Memorial Day 1999, in consultation with tribal representatives, the U.S. added two red granite markers to the battlefield to note where Native American warriors fell. As of December 2006, a total of ten warrior markers have been added. The Indian Memorial, themed "Peace Through Unity" is an open circular structure that stands 75 yards (69 metres) from the 7th Cavalry obelisk. Its walls have some of the names of Indians who died at the site, as well as native accounts of the battle. The open circle of the structure is symbolic, as for many tribes, the circle is sacred. The "spirit gate" window facing the Cavalry monument is symbolic as well, welcoming the dead cavalrymen into the memorial.

"Wow, Mr Peabody, Did you know Errol Flynn played George Armstrong Custer in They Died with Their Boots On in 1941"

"You know Sherman, people say I look like Errol Flynn, if I had a moustache."

9. Devil's Island

November 11, 1966

"You'd be better off if I killed you here and now."

- Lescaux

Doug and Tony are transported to 1895 to the French penal colony of the Devil's Island, a prison where political and criminal prisoners where sent and never leave. The time travelers are taken into custody as escaped prisoners. They try to explain the mistake to the Commandant, but their explanations are rejected. The prisoners decide to help the charismatic Captain Alfred Dreyfus to escape. Doug and Tony realilize that this is a doomed plan because historically Dreyfuss never escaped at that time, so taking him along would doom the success of any escape attempt.

Director: Jerry Hopper

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Marcel Hillaire, Oscar Beregi Jr, Theodore Marcuse, Ted Roter, Steven Geray, Alain Patrice, Bob Adler

The title references the English name for the notorious French prison located about 6 nautical miles off the coast of French Guiana. Operating from 1852 to 1953, the small island (35 acres) of Île du Diable was the home for 80,000 political and criminal prisoner's whom mostly were never heard of again.

Theo Marcuse, who plays Lescaux, had earlier guest starred in a similarly themed episode, The Wild Wild West: The Night of the Bottomless Pit (1966).

When Tony and Doug jump the guards who are manning the cannon, one guard punches Doug, who falls back on a large boulder. The boulder moves several inches when he hits it.

Dr. MacGregor states that the ground temperature at the Equator is 150 degrees. Ground temperatures along the Equator during the month of March tend to be in the low to mid 70's.

10. Reign of Terror

November 18, 1966

"But blast it, he's not an ancestor! None of my people came from France."

- Lt. Gen. Heywood Kirk

Doug and Tony find themselves during the French Revolution and become involved in a plot to rescue the doomed French Queen, Marie Antoinette. Meanwhile, General Kirk and the Tic-Toc crew send back an irradiated personal ring to Tony and Doug which they hope will act as a focal point to home in on. Doug and Tony get the ring, but then reveal themselves to a man who is a splitting image of Kirk! This French General, Querque, is with the Revolution and has them arrested. Querque now has the ring and believes it is the evidence he needs to have Antoinette executed.

Director: William Welch

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: David Opatoshu, Monique Lemaire, Louis Mercier, Whit Bissell, Patrick Michenaud, Joey Tata

The "Reign of Terror" refers to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established in which multiple massacres and public executions occurred in response to revolutionary fervor, anti-clerical sentiment, and frivolous accusations of treason by Maximilien Robespierre and his Committee of Public Safety. Between June 1793 and the end of July 1794, there were 16,594 official death sentences in France, of which 2,639 were in Paris.

Marie Antoinette is perhaps best known for the quote, "Let them eat cake." As the story goes, upon hearing that the people had no bread to eat around the start of the French Revolution in 1789, the queen commented "qu’ils mangent de la brioche". (brioche being a type of fancy French bread.) However there is no evidence that Marie Antoinette actually uttered these words, and historians generally agree that such a heartless comment would have been highly uncharacteristic of the French queen. Despite her lavish lifestyle, Marie Antoinette gave to charity and had compassion for her country’s common class. The remark is generally traced back several decades to a version involving "la croute de pate" (another kind of French pastry). The comment was supposedly made by Marie-Therese, a Spanish princess who married King Louis XIV in 1660.

According to this episode, Marie Antoinette was executed on October 15th 1793. In fact, it occurred on October 16th.

At the beginning the scientists are watching through the tunnel the guillotine blade is being drawn up by a rope but when the close-up of it being dropped is shown there is no rope attached to it.

While breaking the Dauphin out of prison, Tony and Doug each fire their rifles twice, with not more than a second between shots. But they are muzzle loaders that couldn't have been fired a second time without reloading.

After they help the Dauphin to escape, there is a fight in the street outside the prison. At the end of the fight, one of the guards barely kicks what appears to be a solid, metal lamp post, and it sways back and forth several inches. Also during the fight one of the guards is shown lunging at Tony and actually grabbing hold of him, but in another shot, the guard knocks into both Tony and Doug.

... 18th Century France

Marie-Antoinette was a victim of circumstance. In her youth, she was a pawn on the diplomatic chessboard of Europe, as France and Austria attempted to navigate the complex web of allegiances that shaped the continent in the wake of the Seven Years’ War. The 15th child of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and the Habsburg empress Maria Theresa, she was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1755. In 1766, as a way to cement the relatively new alliance between the French and Habsburg thrones, Maria Theresa promised her young daughter’s hand in marriage to the future king Louis XVI of France. Four years later, Marie Antoinette (left) and the dauphin were married by proxy in Vienna. (They were 14 and 16 years old, and they had never met.) On May 16th, 1770, a lavish second wedding ceremony took place in the royal chapel at Versailles. More than 5,000 guests watched as the two teenagers were married and many were charmed by Marie, and praised her for her beauty. But, life as a public figure was not easy for Marie Antoinette. Her marriage was difficult and, as she had very few official duties, she spent most of her time socializing and indulging in the extravagance of French court life while her husband, shied away from public affairs. The couple would not consummate their marriage until seven years after their wedding and this became a popular matter of discussion and ridicule both at court and among the public.

King Louis XV died on May 10th 1774 after contracting smallpox. Marie, who was not yet 19 years old, became Queen of France when her husband inherited the throne as King Louis XVI (right). The new Kings inability to consummate his marriage and the queen’s resultant childlessness inspired rivals, including the king’s own brothers, who stood to inherit the throne if she did not produce a legitimate heir, to circulate slanderous reports of her alleged extramarital affairs. These vilifications culminated in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace (1785), in which the queen was unjustly accused of having formed an immoral relationship with a cardinal. The scandal discredited the monarchy and encouraged the nobles to vigorously oppose all the financial reforms advocated by the king’s ministers. This incident was all the more unfortunate for the queen’s reputation because, since the birth of her daughter Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte in December 1778 and of the dauphin Louis in October 1781, she led a quieter and more conventional life. Her second son, the future Louis XVII, was born in March 1785.

France experienced poor harvests during the 1780s, which consequently increased the price of grain, and the government faced mounting financial difficulties. As a result, Marie’s lavish lifestyle at court came under attack. Widely circulated newspapers and inexpensive pamphlets poked fun at the queen’s profligate behavior and spread outlandish, even pornographic rumors about her. Before long, it had become fashionable to blame Marie Antoinette for all of France’s problems. In fact, the nation’s difficulties were not the young queen’s fault. Eighteenth-century colonial wars, particularly the American Revolution, in which the French had intervened on behalf of the colonists, had created a tremendous debt for the French state. The people who owned most of the property in France, such as the Catholic Church and the nobility, generally did not have to pay taxes on their wealth; ordinary people, on the other hand, felt squeezed by high taxes and resentful of the royal family’s conspicuous spending. Louis XVI and his advisers tried to impose a more representative system of taxation, but the nobility resisted. The popular press blamed Marie Antoinette for this and as conditions worsened for ordinary French people, many became convinced that the monarchy and the nobility were conspiring against them. Marie Antoinette continued to be a convenient target for their rage. Cartoonists and pamphleteers depicted her as an "Austrian whore" doing everything she could to undermine the French nation. These pamphlets falsely accused her of masturbating profusely, holding orgies, fornicating with her brother-in-law and having lesbian relationships with Madame du Barry.

In October 1789, a mob of Parisian women protesting the high cost of bread and other goods marched to Versailles, dragged the entire royal family back to the city, and imprisoned them in the Tuileries. In June 1791, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette fled Paris and headed for the Austrian border, where, rumor had it, the queen’s brother, the Holy Roman Emperor, waited with troops ready to invade France, overthrow the revolutionary government and restore the power of the monarchy and the nobility. This incident, it seemed to many, was proof that the queen was a traitor. The royal family was returned to Paris and Louis XVI was restored to the throne. However, many revolutionaries began to argue that the most insidious enemies of the state were not the nobles but the monarchs themselves. In April 1792, partly as a way to test the loyalties of the king and queen, the Jacobin (radical revolutionary) government declared war on Austria. The French army was in a shambles and the war did not go well, a turn of events that many blamed on the foreign-born queen. In August, another mob stormed the Tuileries, overthrew the monarchy and locked the family in a tower. In September, revolutionaries began to massacre royalist prisoners by the thousands. One of Marie Antoinette’s best friends, the Princesse de Lamballe, was dismembered in the street, and revolutionaries paraded her head and body parts through Paris.

The king and queen were now under arrest, the National Convention ordered that the monarchy be abolished, and France was officially declared a republic. On September 21st 1792, the Legislative Assembly in France voted for the monarchy to be abolished. In December, Louis XVI was put on trial for treason; in January, he was executed. By October, a month into the infamous and bloody Reign of Terror that claimed tens of thousands of French lives, Marie Antoinette was put on trial for treason and theft, as well as a false and disturbing charge of sexual abuse against her own son. After the two-day trial, an all-male jury found Marie Antoinette guilty on all charges and she was sent to the guillotine. She was 37 years old.

Marie’s guillotined body was hurled into an unmarked grave in the cemetery of L’eglise de la Madeleine in Paris. The bodies of Louis XVI and Marie were later discovered during the restoration of the monarchy in France in the early 19th century. Their remains were properly reburied at the Basilica of St Denis on January 21st 1815.

"Wow, Mr Peabody, Marie Antoinette could have avoided the whole revolution if she’d simply issued an edict to distribute bread amongst the poor. But then, she couldn’t have had her desert."

"You know what they say Sherman, you can’t have your cake and edict, too."

11. Secret Weapon

November 25, 1966

"I'm beginning to feel strange."

- Dr. Tony Newman

Doug and Tony are transported to Russia on June 16th 1956. They receive an F-5 probe from the Time Tunnel personnel with the message telling them to contact a double agent named Alexis, pose as defecting scientists and to find out about Project A-13. They discover that Professor Anton Biraki has built a Russian Time Tunnel very similar to theirs, and they have been assigned to pilot a capsule in the first time travel experiment. Meanwhile Doug determines the project is doomed to fail.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Theodore Apstein

Guest starring: Nehemiah Persoff, Michael Ansara, Gregory Gay, Russell Conway, Kevin Hagen

In the teaser, Doug looks at a discarded newspaper and says, "Today is June 16th, 1956." They then go to meet Alexis at midnight. That would then make it June 17th after that. But all references to the date in the remainder of the show say that it is still June 16th.

When Doug and Tony first meet Alexis, Tony asks, "How did you know our names?", but his lips are not moving.

Even though it is said it takes places in Russia, the opening scene where you can see mosques and minarets is Istanbul, Turkey. It is most famous scene of historical peninsula in Istanbul.

Most of the Cyrillic signage does not spell anything, it is just gibberish.

12. The Death Trap

November 25, 1966

"All right! Get back! Don't take another step, neither one of you.
I came here to kill Lincoln, and if i have to get you too, I'll do it."

- Jeremiah Gebhardt

Doug and Tony are transported to February 1861 to a barn where a group of conspirators leaded by Jeremiah plots a plan to kill Abraham Lincoln, but they are surprised by a raid of governmental agents. Tony flees with Jeremiah and his brother Matthew while Doug is arrested by Pinkerton's men. The fanatic Jeremiah has prepared a time-bomb to blow up Lincoln's train who is enroute to his inauguration. If they succeed the course of history and the Civil War will be altered.

Director: William Hale

Writer: Leonard Stadd

Guest starring: Scott Marlowe, Tom Skerritt, Ford Rainey, R.G. Armstrong, Christopher Harris

Allan Pinkerton actually did foil an assassination plot while Lincoln was en route from Baltimore to Washington, D.C. for his inauguration in February 1861. Pinkerton's agency solved a series of train robberies during the 1850s, first bringing Pinkerton into contact with George McClellan, then Chief Engineer and Vice President of the Illinois Central Railroad, and Abraham Lincoln, the company's lawyer.

Guest star Tom Skerritt has appeared in more than forty films and more than two hundred television episodes since 1962. He is known for his film roles in M*A*S*H, Alien, The Dead Zone, Top Gun, A River Runs Through It, Up in Smoke, and the television series Picket Fences. Other television work incudes: Twelve O'Clock High, Gunsmoke, The Real McCoys, Bonanza, Death Valley Days, Cheers and My Favorite Martian with Ray Walston who was a regular cast member 30 years later on Picket Fences. Skerritt has earned several nominations and awards, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series in 1993 for Picket Fences.

While being tied up by Matthew, Tony is arguing with Jeremiah, who backhands him across the face. But Jeremiah raises his right hand, then the camera angle changes to show him hitting Tony with his left hand.

The Ford's Theater assassination is depicted inaccurately. Only Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd are depicted as being in the audience at the presidential box, whereas Major Henry Rathbone and Clara Harris were accompanying them in real life. The theater is portrayed as being lit, when it would have been darkened for the performance of Our American Cousin.

Most of John Brown's men had been killed or captured before 1861. The few who remained at large would have been too weakened and demoralized to take part in a high-profile act of terrorism that could easily have led to their capture, especially when war was already almost inevitable.

... Baltimore 1861

The Baltimore Plot was an alleged conspiracy in late February 1861 to assassinate President-elect Abraham Lincoln en route to his inauguration. Allan Pinkerton (left), founder of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, played a key role by managing Lincoln's security throughout the journey. Though scholars debate whether or not the threat was real, clearly Lincoln and his advisors believed that there was a threat and took actions to ensure his safe passage through Baltimore, Maryland.

On November 6th, 1860, Lincoln was elected as the 16th President of the United States, a Republican, and the first to be elected from that party. Shortly after his election, many representatives of southern states made it clear that the Confederacy's secession from the U.S. was inevitable, which greatly increased tension across the nation. A plot to assassinate Lincoln in Baltimore was alleged, and he ultimately arrived secretly in Washington, D.C. on February 23rd, 1861.

Pinkerton was commissioned by the railroad to provide security for the president-elect on his journey to Washington, D.C. Maryland was a slave state with strong Southern sympathies and therefore potentially dangerous for the president-elect to pass through. When Virginia seceded and joined the Confederacy, it became necessary for Lincoln to cross Maryland to reach Washington.

On February 11th, 1861, President-elect Lincoln boarded an east-bound train in Springfield, Illinois at the start of a whistle-stop tour of 70 towns and cities ending with his inauguration in Washington, D.C. Pinkerton had been hired by railroad officials to investigate suspicious activities along Lincoln's route through Baltimore and became convinced that a plot existed to ambush Lincoln's carriage. Pinkerton tried to persuade Lincoln to cancel his stop at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and proceed secretly straight through Baltimore, but Lincoln insisted upon keeping to his schedule.

On the evening of February 22nd, telegraph lines to Baltimore were cut at Pinkerton's behest to prevent communications from passing between potential conspirators in Pennsylvania and Maryland. Meanwhile, Lincoln left Harrisburg on a special train and arrived secretly in Baltimore in the middle of the night. The most dangerous link in the journey was in Baltimore, where a city ordinance prohibited night-time rail travel through the downtown area. Therefore, the railcars had to be horsedrawn between the President Street and Camden Street stations.

According to Pinkerton, a captain of the roads reported that there was a plot to stab the President-elect. The alleged plan was to have several assassins, armed with knives, interspersed throughout the crowd that would gather to greet Lincoln at the President Street station. When Lincoln emerged from the car, which he had to do to change trains, at least one of the assassins would be able to get close enough to kill him.

On the afternoon of February 23rd, Lincoln's scheduled train arrived at Calvert Street Station in Baltimore. The large crowd that gathered at the station to see the president-elect quickly learned that Lincoln had already passed by. Even though the rest of the Lincoln party, including Mrs. Lincoln and the children, had been on this train as originally scheduled, they had already alighted from the train in an unscheduled stop several blocks north of the President Street station.

Pinkerton had undercover agents gathering and supplying information which helped convince him that there was a plot to assassinate Lincoln in Baltimore. This included Pinkerton agents Harry W. Davies and Timothy Webster, and female Pinkerton agents Kate Warne (the agencies first female detective part of Pinkerton's Female Detective Bureau, formed in 1860) and Hattie Lawton.

Lincoln was hesitant to pay the threat any mind but eventually, Pinkerton convinced him that he must take caution, and thus they established a plan to deliver him safely to the White House. Warne organized most of it. She handled securing the last car on the train so they could get him easily on and off. Disguising Lincoln as her invalid brother. They made him stooped and walk with a cane and threw a big coat over him. There were two detectives on the train with him. Warne accompanied the 16th president on most of his journey, reportedly not sleeping for one second all night. "We never Sleep" would become the Pinkerton moto.

Kate Warne (1830 - 1868) was the first known female detective, working for famed detective Allan Pinkerton from 1856 until her death in 1868, at age 35 of pneumonia. She is buried in Pinkerton's employee lot in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, where the firm was based (under the name of Kate Warn). Most of the information about her life comes from Pinkerton's writings about her, obituaries, and a few scattered reports. Almost all of Pinkerton's files were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.

Pinkerton describes her as being a "commanding person, with clear cut, expressive features. A slender, brown-haired woman, graceful in her movements and self-possessed."

Warne was left as a young childless widow in search of work and responded to an ad in a local newspaper from the Chicago office of the Pinkerton Detective Agency. There is still debate whether or not she walked in with intentions to become a detective or just a secretary. Women were not detectives until well after the Civil War. Pinkerton himself claimed that Kate Warne came into his agency and demanded to become a detective. According to Pinkerton's records, he was surprised to learn Kate was not looking for clerical work, but was actually answering an advertisement for detectives. At the time, such a concept was unheard of. According to Pinkerton, Warne's arguments about the advantages of having a female detective convinced him employe her as the first female detective in America.

During Warne's tenure at Pinkerton's, she worked on several important cases including the Adams Express Company embezzlement case and was also instrumental in working on the Wild Rose spy case. Additionally, she oversaw Pinkerton's women's department and managed his D.C. office during the Civil War. She posed as Pinkerton’s wife while collecting crucial military intelligence during the War. She became Mrs. Potter, who coaxed a confession out of a murderer’s wife in Mississippi. She became Lucille, a fortune teller who unveiled a plot to poison a man named Captain Sumner. She became Kay, Kitty and Angie, so many names that historians are unsure which actual cases belonged to her.

Warne would go on to become the head of a new branch of female detectives paving the way for Pinkerton to hire other women detectives. Her obituary was published across the country and even in England and Scotland. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda J. Gage and Ida H. Harper included a reference to her in their seminal work, History of Woman Suffrage. Warne was a trailblazer at a time when most women were considered to be little more than property of their husbands, she broke barriers and pushed boundaries.

Cipriano Ferrandini was a hairdresser from Corsica who emigrated to the United States, and established himself as the long-time barber and hairdresser in the basement of Barnum's Hotel in Baltimore was accused but never indicted for plotting to assassinate Abraham Lincoln in 1861.

Many historians believe that Pinkerton's perception of an assassination plot was incorrect. In the 1891 book Recollections of President Lincoln and his Administration, author L.E. Chittenden argues that there was no need for any precautions, such as a disguise, because Lincoln "entered the sleeping–car at Philadelphia, and slept until awakened within a few miles of Washington." That account contradicts other firsthand accounts, which state that Lincoln spent a sleepless and anxious night with Lamon and Pinkerton, during which he "spoke in a quiet voice to avoid being noticed."

Whether or not the president-elect was ever in any real danger of being assassinated, Lincoln's efforts to reach Washington, D.C., safely instantly became a humiliating cause celebre across the nation, much to his chagrin, and newspapers lampooned Lincoln for slipping through Baltimore in the dead of night. For the rest of his presidency, the story of his sneaking like a coward through Baltimore would be told and retold by his enemies and political cartoons about the incident plagued Lincoln throughout his presidency.

In 1951, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) released a fictional re-creation of the alleged plot against Lincoln, The Tall Target. Its story generally follows what is known about the Baltimore Plot, with some differences. It is a New York Police Department detective named John Kennedy, played by Dick Powell, who contacts the administration about the conspiracy and boards the train hoping to discover whether any of the plotters are on board before they reach Baltimore. Kennedy discovers a plot that involves a riot to distract police protection away from Lincoln and a sharpshooter armed with a rifle with a telescopic sight to shoot the president-elect. Through Kennedy's efforts, the attempt is aborted and key members of the conspiracy are identified.

There actually was an NYPD officer, John Alexander Kennedy, who claimed to have been the one who uncovered the Baltimore Plot; but, unlike Powell's movie character, he was not actually on scene. Moreover, in real life, Kennedy was the superintendent of the entire force. In the film, he is depicted as a mere detective sergeant.

The Time Tunnel episode takes place in February 1861 and depicts a bomb being used in the plot and has the attempt being plotted by Abolitionists, who hope to plunge the nation into a war in which slavery will be ended; the plotters are apparent sympathizers with John Brown, who had already been hanged. In reality, the American Civil War actually began in April 1861, with the attack on Fort Sumter.

"Wow, Mr Peabody,
Kate Warne working for Pinkerton's was just like Charlie's Angles."

"You know Sherman,
I think you watch
too much TV."

13. The Alamo

December 9, 1966

"It's not nonsence. It's history!"

- Lt. Gen. Heywood Kirk

Tony and Doug arrive at the Alamo on March 6th, 1836 - the day Santa Ana wiped out the defenders. The two make it to the fort, but are put into custody when Alamo commander Colonel Travis decides they must be spies and orders them imprisoned.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Rhodes Reason, John Lupton, Edward Colmans, Alberto Monte, Rodolfo Hoyos, Jr, Elizabeth Rogers

The episode features the Mission San Antonio de Valero in San Antonio, Texas that was built in the 17th century to convert the native Americans to Christianity. By 1800 the mission had been abandoned and was used as a garrison before the Texas soldiers occupied the building prior to the historic battle in 1836 which resulted in the cry of "Remember the Alamo!"

While Sgt. Garcia (above) is talking to Tony, we can see that his bandolier contains metal-cased cartridges. That type of ammunition would not be developed until more than a decade later, and it would be much longer before it would become available to the Mexican army. In addition, it would be useless with the muzzle-loading flintlock weapon he was carrying.

Just after Tony and Doug arrive, an officer tells them that Davy Crockett was killed "yesterday", but during the climactic battle, we see him twice. The first time shortly after Doug fires the rifle, and then again just after Tony and Doug transfer out.

When Doug and Tony materialise outside the fort, that side of The Alamo has a large hill a few hundred yards in front of the gate, but later when The Mexicans start to over-run the fort, that side is completely flat outside when the cavalry and soldiers run across that area.

Although they say there were no survivors, there actually were. No white males survived the actual battle, but at least 12 couriers that left prior to the final battle did survive. In addition there were many female, Native American, black, and/or children that survived. No accurate count seems to be available though.

Although the battle happens in the late afternoon in this episode, the actual final assault at the Alamo began early in the morning just after 5:30 am and ending around 6:30 am.

When Rodriguez offers Tony the wine, he says that they took it from the American merchants who abandoned it when they left. At this time Texas was an independent country. The merchants would have been Texan, not American.

... The Alamo

The Battle of the Alamo (February 23rd to March 6th, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Bexar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas, United States), killing the Texian and immigrant occupiers. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians, both legal Texas settlers and illegal immigrants from the United States, to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21st, 1836, ending the rebellion.

Several months previously, Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were then garrisoned at the Alamo. The garrison was woefully undermanned and underprovisioned. Colonel James C. Neill, the acting Alamo commander, wrote to the provisional government and requested additional troops and supplies. The Texian government was in turmoil and unable to provide much assistance. Four different men claimed to have been given command over the entire army. Neill approached one of them, Sam Houston, for assistance in gathering supplies, clothing, and ammunition. Houston could not spare the number of men necessary to mount a successful defense. Instead, he sent Colonel James Bowie (below center) with 30 men to remove the artillery from the Alamo and destroy the complex. Bowie was unable to transport the artillery since the Alamo garrison lacked the necessary draft animals and Neill soon persuaded Bowie that the location held strategic importance. In a letter to Governor Henry Smith, Bowie argued that "the salvation of Texas depends in great measure on keeping Bexar out of the hands of the enemy". The letter to Smith ended, "Colonel Neill and myself have come to the solemn resolution that we will rather die in these ditches than give it up to the enemy." Bowie also wrote to the provisional government, asking for "men, money, rifles, and cannon powder". Few reinforcements were authorized; cavalry officer William B. Travis (below left, in a sketch by Wyly Martin, the only known likeness of Travis drawn during his lifetime), arrived in Bexar with 30 men on February 3rd. Five days later, a small group of volunteers arrived, including the famous frontiersman and former U.S. Congressman David Crockett of Tennessee (below right).

On February 11th, Neill left the Alamo, determined to recruit additional reinforcements and gather supplies. He transferred command to Travis, the highest-ranking regular army officer in the garrison. Volunteers comprised much of the garrison, and they were unwilling to accept Travis as their leader. The men instead elected Bowie, who had a reputation as a fierce fighter, as their commander. Bowie celebrated by getting very intoxicated and creating havoc in Bexar. To mitigate the resulting ill feelings, Bowie agreed to share command with Travis.

As the Texians struggled to find men and supplies, Santa Anna continued to gather men at San Luis Potosi; by the end of 1835 his army numbered 6,019 soldiers. On February 23rd the Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Bexar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas. For the next 10 days, the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties. Aware that his garrison could not withstand an attack by such a large force, Travis wrote multiple letters pleading for more men and supplies from Texas and from the United States. The United States had a treaty with Mexico, and supplying any men or weapons would have been an overt act of war.

In the early morning hours of March 6th, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo. After repelling two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian fighters withdrew into interior buildings. Occupiers unable to reach these points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape. Between five and seven Texians may have surrendered; if so, they were quickly executed. Most eyewitness accounts reported between 182 and 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. Several noncombatants were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texian defeat. The news sparked both a strong rush to join the Texian army and a panic, known as "The Runaway Scrape", in which the Texian army, most settlers, and the new, self-proclaimed but officially unrecognized, Republic of Texas government fled eastward toward the United States ahead of the advancing Mexican Army.

Within Mexico, the battle has often been overshadowed by events from the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. In 19th-century Texas, the Alamo complex gradually became known as a battle site rather than a former mission. The Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the early part of the 20th century and designated the Alamo chapel as an official Texas State Shrine. The Alamo has been the subject of numerous non-fiction works beginning in 1843. Most Americans, however, are more familiar with the myths and legends spread by many of the movie and television adaptations, including the 1950s Disney mini-series Davy Crockett and John Wayne's 1960 film The Alamo.

"Wow, Mr Peabody,
I thought The Alamo
was just a car
rental company."

"You know Sherman, sometimes I worry about todays youth."

14. Night of the Long Knives

December 16, 1966

"Useless dog!"

- Hara Singh

Doug and Tony land in nineteenth century Asia, meet Rudyard Kipling and become involved in the conflict between the British and local tribesman for control of the Khyber Pass. Tony is shot by Afghani tribesmen and left for dead, and they then take Doug prisoner. Doug is taken before Singh, the head of the Afghanis fighting against the British in 1876, while Rudyard Kipling rescues Tony and takes him to the English fort. The Afghanis are preparing for a massive attack on the English, the "Night of the Long Knives".

Director: Paul Stanley

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Malachi Throne, David Watson, Perry Lopez, George Keymas, Brendan Dillon, Peter Brocco, Ben Wright, Dayton Lummis

This episode features veteran actor Malachi Throne playing a fictional character named Hara Singh. The character is loosely based on Hira Singh, ruler of Nabha in northwest India, who died in 1911.

The title Night of the Long Knives was actually the name for a purge that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30th and July 2nd, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political executions, most of those killed being members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a Nazi paramilitary organization.

Today India does not have a western border with Afghanistan. To the west of India is Pakistan, since its creation in 1947, and it has the western border with Afghanistan. But this story is set in 1886. The episode is quite correct in its geography.

At the start, when Tony is shot at, he covers his left eye in pain: yet when they turn him over, he is bleeding over the right eyebrow. At the 23 minute mark Tony's "gun shot" head wound has miraculously disappeared.


15. Invasion

December 23, 1966

"I'm not going to waste my life on your Nazi friend."

- Mirabeau

Doug and Tony are captured by the Gestapo in Cherbourg on June 4th, 1944, two days before D-Day. A scientist, Dr. Heinz Kleinemann, working for the Reich brainwashes Doug and allows Tony to escape. Tony falls in with the Resistance while Kleinemann successfully programs Doug to beleive he is "Heinrich Kriegler", whose father was killed by Tony. Will Doug kill Tony and expose the Resistance?

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Lyle Bettger, Robert Carricart, John Wengraf, Francis DeSales, Michael St. Clair, Joe E. Tata

In this episode, Doug is brainwashed into thinking he's a Nazi, and he is instructed to kill Tony. In The Time Tunnel: The Death Merchant (1967), Tony is injured in an explosion and suffers amnesia. When he regains his strength, he believes he is a Confederate solider. Believing Doug to be the enemy, he sets out the goal to kill Doug for himself.

Michael St. Clair, who plays Duchamps in this episode, had earlier guest starred in another WWII episode, Hogan's Heroes: Anchors Aweigh, Men of Stalag 13 (1965).

Doug and Tony land in France in June, 1944 and are taken to Gestapo headquarters. The picture on the office wall of Rudolf Hess is out of place since he was considered a traitor in Nazi Germany after his mysterious flight to England in 1941. After the fuel explosion the picture is of Heinrich Himmler.

Major Hoffman (Lyle Bettger) wears the silver oak leaf of an SS StandartenFuhrer (Colonel).

The four pips on the Gorget patches of Doug's uniform denote an SS Sturmbannfuhrer (Major). He was addressed as a captain.

... Normandy, June 6th 1944

Codenamed Operation Neptune and often referred to as D-Day, the Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, June 6th 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II. It was the largest seaborne invasion in history. The operation began the liberation of German-occupied France (and later western Europe) and laid the foundations of the Allied victory on the Western Front.

Planning for the operation began in 1943. In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a substantial military deception, codenamed Operation Bodyguard, to mislead the Germans as to the date and location of the main Allied landings. The weather on D-Day was far from ideal, and the operation had to be delayed 24 hours; a further postponement would have meant a delay of at least two weeks, as the invasion planners had requirements for the phase of the moon, the tides, and the time of day that meant only a few days each month were deemed suitable. Adolf Hitler placed German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in command of German forces and of developing fortifications along the Atlantic Wall in anticipation of an Allied invasion.

The amphibious landings were preceded by extensive aerial and naval bombardment and an airborne assault - the landing of 24,000 American, British, and Canadian airborne troops shortly after midnight. Allied infantry and armoured divisions began landing on the coast of France at 06:30. The target 50-mile (80 km) stretch of the Normandy coast was divided into five sectors: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. Strong winds blew the landing craft east of their intended positions, particularly at Utah and Omaha. The men landed under heavy fire from gun emplacements overlooking the beaches, and the shore was mined and covered with obstacles such as wooden stakes, metal tripods, and barbed wire, making the work of the beach-clearing teams difficult and dangerous. Casualties were heaviest at Omaha, with its high cliffs. At Gold, Juno, and Sword, several fortified towns were cleared in house-to-house fighting, and two major gun emplacements at Gold were disabled using specialised tanks.

The Allies failed to achieve any of their goals on the first day. Carentan, St. Lo, and Bayeux remained in German hands, and Caen, a major objective, was not captured until July 21st. Only two of the beaches (Juno and Gold) were linked on the first day, and all five beachheads were not connected until June 12th; however, the operation gained a foothold that the Allies gradually expanded over the coming months. German casualties on D-Day have been estimated at 4,000 to 9,000 men. Allied casualties were documented for at least 10,000, with 4,414 confirmed dead.

Museums, memorials, and war cemeteries in the area now host many visitors each year. At Omaha Beach, parts of the Mulberry harbour are still visible, and a few of the beach obstacles remain.

A memorial to the US National Guard sits at the location of a former German strongpoint. Pointe du Hoc is little changed from 1944, with the terrain covered with bomb craters and most of the concrete bunkers still in place.

The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial is nearby, in Colleville-sur-Mer. A museum about the Utah landings is located at Sainte-Marie-du-Mont, and there is one dedicated to the activities of the US airmen at Sainte-Mère-eglise.

Two German military cemeteries are located nearby. Pegasus Bridge, a target of the British 6th Airborne, was the site of some of the earliest action of the Normandy landings. The bridge was replaced in 1994 by one similar in appearance, and the original is now housed on the grounds of a nearby museum complex. Sections of Mulberry Harbour B still sit in the sea at Arromanches, and the well-preserved Longues-sur-Mer battery is nearby. The Juno Beach Centre (below), opened in 2003, was funded by the Canadian federal and provincial governments, France, and Canadian veterans.

"Wow, Mr Peabody,
I remember seeing all that in the documentary The Longest Day starring John Wayne."

"You know Sherman, that wasn't a documentary...
oh, never mind."

16. The Revenge of Robin Hood

December 30, 1966

"I always thought that Robin Hood was a legend."

- Dr. Doug Phillips

In thirteenth century England, Doug and Tony become involved with the Earl of Huntington otherwise known as the legendary Robin Hood and their efforts to get King John to sign the Magna Carta.

Director: William Hale

Writer: Leonard Stadd

Guest starring: Donald Harron, John Alderson, Ronald Long, Erin O'Brien Moore, John Crawford, James Lanphier, John Orchard

The same night this episode aired, December 30th, 1966, guest star John Crawford (playing King John) was also guest starring in a season 2 episode of Hogan's Heroes (Art for Hogan's Sake) playing 1st Gestapo Man.

Guest star Don Harron (1924 - 2015) was a prolific, chameleon-like character actor of 1960's sci-fi TV shows, seen to excellent effect in The Man from U.N.C.L.E. (1964) (as Kitt Kittridge), The Time Tunnel (1966) (as Robin Hood), The Outer Limits (1963) and The Invaders (1967). The Canadian born comedian/actor was also a director, journalist, author, playwright, and composer and is best known for his Charlie Farquharson persona (right). As Charlie Farquharson he published several bestselling books including, "Charlie Farquharson's Histry of Canada" and "Charlie Farquharson's Jogfree of Canda". Harron first portrayed Charlie Farquharson in 1952 on the CBC series The Big Revue and continued to perform the character regularly on stage and on Canadian radio and television for the next 50 plus years. Charlie received international attention as part of the cast of the U.S. country music television show, Hee Haw during its 23-year run. Harron also reprised the character in three episodes of The Red Green Show in 2003 and 2004. Dressed in an overly well-worn sweater along with a frayed cap, and sporting a grizzled 'two-day beard,' Farquharson is a decidedly rural Ontario farmer from the real-life town of Parry Sound. He and his wife, Valeda, have a son, Orville. Both were usually unseen and unheard, but on occasion (mostly on stage) Harron's wife Catherine McKinnon would play the role of Valeda. Uneducated, but not without a boisterous 'school of hard knocks' sensibility, Charlie would loudly deliver his opinion about matters local and worldwide, using many malapropisms in the process which often resulted in both double meanings and increased satire about the events. He was also known for his loud hearty laugh, "Hee! Hee! Hee!". In addition to his television appearances as Charlie, through the 1970s and 80s Harron provided humorous syndicated commentaries to various Canadian radio stations in the Farquharson persona. In 2000, Harron's contribution to the Canadian entertainment industry was recognized with his being named a member of the Order of Ontario. He was invested as member of the Order of Canada in 1980 and in 2007, he was given the Gemini Award for Lifetime Achievement in Radio and Television. Harron was inducted into the Canadian Country Music Hall of Fame in 2010.

During the attack on the castle by Robin and his men, the same defender falls off the wall three times, using the same stock footage repeated just moments apart.

About two-thirds of the way through this episode, Tony assists Robin Hood and his men in ambushing some of King John's mounted troops. One of the (unnamed) Merry Men launches an arrow that strikes the first of the king's men, who falls off his horse. In the next shot, this archer (to the left of the screen) drops his arrow instead of shooting it.

... Not Quite Sure Where

The historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries. A difficulty with any such historical research is that Robert was a very common given name in medieval England, and 'Robin' (or Robyn) was its very common diminutive, especially in the 13th century. The surname Hood (or Hude, Hode, etc.) was also fairly common because it referred either to a hooder, who was a maker of hoods, or alternatively to somebody who wore a hood as a head-covering. It is therefore unsurprising that medieval records mention a number of people called 'Robert Hood' or 'Robin Hood', some of whom are known to have fallen foul of the law.

Another view on the origin of the name is expressed in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica which remarks that 'hood' was a common dialectical form of 'wood'; and that the outlaw's name has been given as 'Robin Wood'. There are a number of references to Robin Hood as Robin Wood, or Whood, or Whod, from the 16th and 17th centuries. The earliest recorded example, in connection with May games in Somerset, dates from 1518.

The oldest references to Robin Hood are not historical records, or even ballads recounting his exploits, but hints and allusions found in various works. From 1261 onward, the names "Robinhood", "Robehod", or "Robbehod" occur in the rolls of several English Justices as nicknames or descriptions of malefactors. The majority of these references date from the late 13th century. Between 1261 and 1300, there are at least eight references to "Rabunhod" in various regions across England, from Berkshire in the south to York in the north.

The first mention of a quasi-historical Robin Hood is given in Andrew of Wyntoun's Orygynale Chronicle, written in about 1420. The next notice is a statement in the Scotichronicon, composed by John of Fordun between 1377 and 1384, and revised by Walter Bower in about 1440. Among Bower's many interpolations is a passage that directly refers to Robin. It is inserted after Fordun's account of the defeat of Simon de Montfort and the punishment of his adherents. Robin is represented as a fighter for de Montfort's cause. This was in fact true of the historical outlaw of Sherwood Forest Roger Godberd, whose points of similarity to the Robin Hood of the ballads have often been noted.

Another reference, discovered by Julian Luxford in 2009, appears in the margin of the "Polychronicon" in the Eton College library. Written around the year 1460 by a monk in Latin.

In a petition presented to Parliament in 1439, the name is used to describe an itinerant felon, Piers Venables of Aston, Derbyshire (Robyn Hude). The name was still used to describe sedition and treachery in 1605, when Guy Fawkes and his associates were branded "Robin Hoods" by Robert Cecil. In 1644, jurist Edward Coke described Robin Hood as a historical figure who had operated in the reign of King Richard I around Yorkshire; he interpreted the contemporary term "roberdsmen" (outlaws) as meaning followers of Robin Hood.

The earliest known legal records mentioning a person called Robin Hood (Robert Hod) are from 1226, found in the York Assizes, when that person's goods, worth 32 shillings and 6 pence, were confiscated and he became an outlaw. Robert Hod owed the money to St Peter's in York. The following year, he was called "Hobbehod". Robert Hod of York is the only early Robin Hood known to have been an outlaw. L.V.D. Owen in 1936 floated the idea that Robin Hood might be identified with an outlawed Robert Hood, or Hod, or Hobbehod, all apparently the same man, referred to in nine successive Yorkshire Pipe Rolls between 1226 and 1234. There is no evidence however that this Robert Hood, although an outlaw, was also a bandit.

Historian Oscar de Ville discusses the career of John Deyville and his brother Robert, along with their kinsmen Jocelin and Adam, during the Second Barons' War, specifically their activities after the Battle of Evesham. John Deyville was granted authority by the faction led by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester over York Castle and the Northern Forests during the war in which they sought refuge after Evesham. John, along with his relatives, led the remaining rebel faction on the Isle of Ely following the Dictum of Kenilworth. De Ville connects their presence there with Bower's mention of "Robert Hood" during the aftermath of Evesham in his annotations to the Scotichronicon.

While John was eventually pardoned and continued his career until 1290, his kinsmen are no longer mentioned by historical records after the events surrounding their resistance at Ely, and de Ville speculates that Robert remained an outlaw. Other points de Ville raises in support of John and his brothers' exploits forming the inspiration for Robin Hood include their properties in Barnsdale, John's settlement of a mortgage worth £400 paralleling Robin Hood's charity of identical value to Sir Richard at the Lee, relationship with Sir Richard Foliot, a possible inspiration for the former figure, and ownership of a fortified home at Hood Hill, near Kilburn, North Yorkshire. The last of these is suggested to be the inspiration for Robin Hood's second name as opposed to the more common theory of a head covering. Perhaps not coincidentally, a "Robertus Hod" is mentioned in records among the holdouts at Ely.

Although de Ville does not explicitly connect John and Robert Deyville to Robin Hood, he discusses these parallels in detail and suggests that they formed prototypes for this ideal of heroic outlawry during the tumultuous reign of Henry III's grandson and Edward I's son, Edward II of England.

David Baldwin identifies Robin Hood with the historical outlaw Roger Godberd, who was a die-hard supporter of Simon de Montfort, which would place Robin Hood around the 1260s. Some problems with this theory are that there is no evidence that Godberd was ever known as Robin Hood and no sign in the early Robin Hood ballads of the specific concerns of de Montfort's revolt.

The antiquarian Joseph Hunter (1783–1861) believed that Robin Hood had inhabited the forests of Yorkshire during the early decades of the fourteenth century. Hunter pointed to two men whom, believing them to be the same person, he identified with the legendary outlaw. Robert Hood who is documented as having lived in the city of Wakefield at the start of the fourteenth century, and "Robyn Hode" who is recorded as being employed by Edward II of England during 1323. Hunter's theory has long been recognised to have serious problems, one of the most serious being that recent research has shown that Hunter's Robyn Hood had been employed by the king before he appeared in the 1323 court roll, thus casting doubt on this Robyn Hood's supposed earlier career as outlaw and rebel.

It has long been suggested, notably by John Maddicott, that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by thieves. What appears to be the first known example of "Robin Hood" as a stock name for an outlaw dates to 1262 in Berkshire, where the surname "Robehod" was applied to a man apparently because he had been outlawed. This could suggest two main possibilities: either that an early form of the Robin Hood legend was already well established in the mid-13th century; or alternatively that the name "Robin Hood" preceded the outlaw hero that we know; so that the "Robin Hood" of legend was so called because that was seen as an appropriate name for an outlaw.

There is at present little or no scholarly support for the view that tales of Robin Hood have stemmed from mythology or folklore, from fairies or other mythological origins, any such associations being regarded as later development. It was once a popular view, however. The "mythological theory" dates back at least to 1584, when Reginald Scot identified Robin Hood with the Germanic goblin "Hudgin" or Hodekin and associated him with Robin Goodfellow. Maurice Keen provides a brief summary and useful critique of the evidence for the view Robin Hood had mythological origins. While the outlaw often shows great skill in archery, swordplay and disguise, his feats are no more exaggerated than those of characters in other ballads, such as Kinmont Willie, which were based on historical events.

Robin Hood has also been claimed for the pagan witch-cult supposed by Margaret Murray to have existed in medieval Europe, and his anti-clericalism and Marianism interpreted in this light. The existence of the witch cult as proposed by Murray is now generally discredited.

"Wow, Mr Peabody,
do you know anything about the outlaw Dennis Moore, who stole from the poor and gave to rich?"

"Well, Sherman, I know that Dennis found the redistribution of wealth was trickier than he thought."

17. Kill Two by Two

January 6, 1967

"Here is a island called Iwo Jima, have you heard of it?"

- Lt. Nakamura

Stuck on a Pacific island that is about to be bombarded by the American Navy in February 1945, Doug and Tony are captured by a downed Japanese pilot, Lt. Nakamura and a Japanese Army sergeant, Itsugi. To help the Time Tunnel staff locate this island and their two time travelers, they bring in a consultant who turns out to be the lieutenant's father and he will not help them unless they save his son.

Director: Herschel Daugherty

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Mako, Philip Ahn, Brent Davis, Vince Howard, Kam Tong

Lt. Nakamura mentions that Minami Imo is near Iwo Jima. Aside from the strategic and tactical importance of capturing Iwo Jima for the airfield, one of the most iconic combat photos of all time, the six Marines raising the flag on Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, occurred on February 23rd, 1945, on the fourth day of the battle.

When Doug takes a crow bar and breaks the lock with it, he tosses the crowbar on the ground outside the door and opens the door and steps inside, The next scene when he steps inside he is holding the crowbar in his hand and places it on some boxes.

Doug tosses a Japanese hand grenade after pulling the pin, and it explodes. In order to explode, Japanese grenades of WW II required that they be armed first, by forcefully pushing down on the vertical striker after pulling the safety pin. This was usually accomplished by the soldier banging it against his metal helmet. The grenades thrown in this installment would never have exploded, nor would the booby trap set by Tony and Doug have worked.

The General mentions two ships, the USS Missouri and USS Illinois. The USS Illinois was never completed as it was decided that a different class of ship was more highly needed for the war effort.

The Japanese soldier takes a machete into the jungle to cut two bamboo staffs but when he comes back he doesn't have it. A trained soldier wouldn't casually leave it behind especially one that is at war.

When Tony is leaning against a boulder to catch his breath, the boulder moves from the pressure of his weight.

18. Visitors from Beyond the Stars

January 13, 1967

"Resistance is impossible."

- The Alien Leader

Doug and Tony land in a Western town in the late 19th century, where they are intercepted by two silver-clad aliens. The aliens need to steal protein to supplement their own supplies, and soon use their advanced technology to mind-control Doug and hold the confused townspeople at bay while stealing local cattle. Meanwhile, at Project Tic-Toc in 1966 the same alien race arrive and demand to know what happened to their scouting party a hundred years earlier, believing the Project to have something to do with it.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Fred Beir, Jan Merlin, John Hoyt, Tristram Coffin, Ross Elliott, Byron Foulger, Gary Haynes

The language of the aliens is actually English played back in reverse.

This episode marks the appearance in the series of Irwin Allen's signature silver skinned aliens. The silver outfits worn by the aliens were originally worn on another Irwin Allen series: Lost In Space (right). They were the Robinson family spacesuits, altered by the addition of wide belts and silver skullcaps with cowls.

When The Time Tunnel first opens showing Doug and Tony on the spaceship, the music playing in the background was taken from the movie The Day The Earth Stood Still.

This is the first of two consecutive episodes to feature veteran actor John Hoyt.

Two of the "homing staff" props used in Revenge of Robin Hood are used as decorations on the spaceship.

The stores across the street near the saloon are actually painted on plywood. When the aliens leave the saloon to return to their ship, they cast their shadow on it.

19. The Ghost of Nero

January 20, 1967

"General, whatever the force is, it's making us powerless to help Tony and Doug."

- Dr. Raymond Swain

Tony and Doug arrive near the Italian-Austrian Alps on October 23rd, 1915, as the Germans are preparing to bombard the area. An explosion knocks them out and uncovers the stone coffin of Emperor Nero. They awaken and discover they are beneath the villa of Count Galba and that is haunted by the ghost of the Roman Emperor.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Leonard Stadd

Guest starring: Eduardo Ciannelli, Gunnar Hellstrom, Richard Jaeckel, John Hoyt, Nino Candido

Doug and Tony are lying unconscious inside the crypt, when Nero's ghost nears them; the music playing in the background was taken from the movie The Day The Earth Stood Still in particular from the scene when Patricia Neal said to Robot Gort "Klaatu barada nikto"

Though the episode is set during World War I, the Germans are wearing World War II uniforms (above left).

When the books are flying off the bookcase when Nero's ghost is on a rampage in the study, you can visibly see a stick pushing a row of books off the shelf from behind the bookcase (above right).

Tony and Doug light a candle to provide light in the catacomb. A few moments later, the two pass by the table and the candle is out, yet the room remains illuminated.

When Nero's ghost levitates the sword in the teaser, wires are clearly visible holding it.

20. The Walls of Jericho

January 27, 1967

"As a scientist, I don't permit myself to believe in miracles."

- Dr. Ann MacGregor

Tony and Doug arrive outside the tent of Joshua on the sixth day of his seven-day assault on Jericho. With their future knowledge of the Bible they are able to convince Joshua that they are emissaries of the Lord, and he forces them to go into Jericho as spies. Doug is captured and tortured after they try to stop an exection, and Tony befriends a harlot, Rahab. With the help of Rahab and her father, a blind architect, they manage to free Doug. Tony and Rahab are set up for execution, but when a skeptical Anne tries to use the Tunnel to free them in opposition to how the Bible describes the incident, the Tunnel shuts down as if by some outside force.

Director: Nathan Juran

Writer: Ellis St. Joseph

Guest starring: Myrna Fahey, Lisa Gaye, Abraham Sofaer, Rhodes Reason, Cynthia Lane, Tiger Joe Marsh, Arnold Moss, Michael Pate

On January 27th, 1967, "The Walls of Jericho" was interrupted several times by ABC News bulletins before the network stopped showing it altogether. The reason: Apollo 1 astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee were killed by a flash fire that spread through their space capsule during a launch pad test at Cape Kennedy. The astronauts were scheduled to be launched into space on February 21st, 1967.

The bug eyed god Keemash was used previously on Lost in Space: Follow the Leader (1966).

The Walls of Jericho fell down upon the command of God according to the biblical book of Joshua (in its 6th chapter) after the Israelites walked around the city and the trumpets sounded. In 2010, the original city of Jericho is a earthen mound in which archaeological excavations have been performed for over a hundred years.

21. Idol of Death

February 3, 1967

"Just a moment. You don't give us orders."

- Lt. Gen. Heywood Kirk

Doug and Tony arrive in a jungle in 1519 Yucatan as Cortez and his Spanish conquistadores attack the locals and the pair rescue natives being tortured for knowledge of a sacred golden mask. Doug and Tony are captured as spies and Cortez burns his ships and plans the their execution. Meanwhile, the Project team call up an expert familiar with the terrain, Castillano, a man with a reputation for stealing artifacts. When the time travelers get captured Castillano offers the Project staff their location in return for the recovery of the mask.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Teno Pollick, Lawrence Montaigne, Anthony Caruso, Peter Brocco, Patrick Culliton, Abel Fernandez, Rodolfo Hoyos, Jr

The Spanish used "cacique" to mean a male leader of native peoples and "cacica" for a female leader. They picked this up from the Taino native peoples in the Caribbean but used the terms through North and South America.

The sword Tony holds on Cortez is a 19th century U.S. Navy cutlass.

Conveniently, the natives, the Spaniards, and the Americans all speak English.

When Cortes has his ships burned you can see the man (below left circled) who set the ships on fire exiting the set pool, and you can tell the ships are models.

Cortes is depicted fighting in Veracruz against the Tlaxcaltecs but the natives living there were the Totonacs. The Tlaxcaltecs lived in the central zone of Mexico, not in the Gulf Coast.When Castillano first grabs the guards pistol he fire a shot in the air. There is no sound effect edited in and so there is no sound of gun fire.

The Tunnel appears to be extremely long, stretching off to a vanishing point. But as Castillano carries the golden mask out of the Tunnel, his shadow on the back wall reveals that it is only perhaps 30 feet deep, with the back wall painted to look like a tunnel receding to "infinity".

When Castillano first grabs the guards pistol he fire a shot in the air. There is no sound effect edited in and so there is no sound of gun fire.

When the young chief is about to pick up the golden mask, he first bumps it with his hand and it wobbles a short distance across the table on its "stone" base, revealing that it has nowhere near the weight of real gold and stone.

Doug drops a torch in the center of a line of gun powder but the ignition point begins at the lower right of the screen.

22. Billy the Kid

February 10, 1967

"Start walking, dude. When you think you're close enough to hit anything, draw."

- Billy the Kid (William H. Bonney)

Landing in 1881 New Mexico in the middle of a jailbreak of Billy the Kid, to defend Tony Doug shoots at Billy who escapes swearing to hunt down Doug. According to their research back at the Time Tunel, two unknown strangers were killed by him on that date. At one point Tony goes is mistaken for Billy. Pat Garrett arrives and convinces the sheriff that Tony isn't Billy, but the mob isn't hearing it.

Director: Nathan Juran

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Robert Walker, Allen Case, John Crawford, Harry Lauter, Pitt Herbert, Phil Chambers

In an early part of the story, Billy the Kid hears a noise and calls out "Quien es.", Spanish for "Who is it". Spending a lot of his time in Mexico, Billy the Kid could speak Spanish. "Quien es" was, in fact the last thing he ever said before being shot dead by Pat Garrett.

Billy the Kid also known as William H. Bonney (birth name Henry McCarty). After his participation in the Lincoln Couty, New Mexico range wars in 1877, he traveled through Texas gaining a reputation as a gambler, outlaw and gun slinger. He was eventually caught by Pat Garrett who later killed him after an escape from jail. Billy the Kid did not gain notoriety until after his death when his story was told in a sensationalist biography.

Billy the Kid was ambidextrous, but primarily right-handed. Due to the reverse image of the only known photograph of him, it gave the incorrect impression that he was left-handed because his revolver is positioned on the left side. During this show he's being shown as left-handed.

While fighting in the cabin, Doug gets flipped over the sink and the pump comes off without any resistance. In reality it would be connected to a metal pipe and shouldn't come off that easy.

When the deputy is trying to calm the mob outside the Sheriff's office, the sign on the window says"Pat Garret, Sheriff". Garrett's name was actually spelled with 2 T's.

During the stampede through town, there's one scene where 3 rows of barbed wire can be seen keeping them in place.

The Tic-Toc Project has the technology to send people traveling trough time yet when they have to do research on Billy the Kid they bring out a bunch of books. They have a Time Tunnel but they don't have Google? If this was really "the future" all the research would be digital.

... Arizona Territory circa 1877

Billy the Kid’s real name was William Henry McCarty, born around 1860-61 possibly in New York City. His mother Catherine McCarty was a widow and single mother and he had a younger brother named Joseph (born 1863). What happened to his father is not known. There's a mystery about his last name of McCarty; it's speculated that it may be his father's name, mother's maiden name, or the last name of his half brother's father. By 1871, Catherine was diagnosed with Tuberculosis and was told to move to a climate that was warmer and drier. In 1873 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Catherine McCarty married a man named William Antrim and the family moved to Silver City in Grant County, located in southern New Mexico. Catherine's health began to deteriorate and on September 16th, 1874, she died.

Antrim didn’t want to be burden with two small boys, so he separated them and placed them in foster homes and left Silver City for Arizona. McCarty now had to earn his own keep, so he was put to work washing dishes and waiting on tables at a restaurant. McCarty’s first run-in with the law came in 1875, when he assisted a local street tough known as "Sombrero Jack" in stealing clothing from a Chinese laundry. Henry hid the loot in his boarding house, but was arrested after his landlord turned him in to the sheriff. The crime only carried a minor sentence, but rather than face punishment, he escaped the jailhouse by shimmying up a chimney.

McCarty fled to one of his foster families and they put him on a stagecoach to Clifton, Arizona where his stepfather was living. Antrim reefused to take him in and Antrim wandered from one ranch to another to find work. For the next 2 years the he tramped around as a ranch hand and gambler. He then met up with a horse thief name John Mackie who taught him the tricks of the trade and the two became partners. After some close calls, an arrest, and escaping from custody, the Kid decided it was wiser to give up his new occupation. He returned some stolen horses to the army to clear himself and got work as a ranch hand.

In a saloon in Camp Grant, Arizona, McCarty was sixteen when he got into an argument with Frank "Windy" Cahill. After some name-calling, Cahill and McCarty began to a fight. In the struggle McCarty shot Cahill. Not wanting to face murder charges, McCarty left Arizona and returned to New Mexico. Now an outlaw and unable to find honest work, he met up with another outlaw named Jesse Evans, who was the leader of a gang of rustlers called "The Boys."

The gang made their way to Lincoln County in 1878 and it was here that Billy the Kid first earned his reputation as a gunslinger, when he participated in a bloody frontier war in Lincoln County, New Mexico. The conflict centered on a business rivalry between British-born rancher John Tunstall and a pair of Irish tycoons named James Dolan and Lawrence Murphy. Dolan and Murphy’s outfit had long held a monopoly over the dry goods and cattle trades in Lincoln County. Working for Dolan "The Boys" started to steal Tunstall’s livestock. Arrests followed and McCarty eventually was caught and placed in jail. Tunstall gave McCarty an ultimatum: if he testified against the other rustlers, Tunstall would hire him as an employee. McCarty took Tunstall’s offer. Now fighting for the Tunstall side and in the hopes of a better future, McCarty changed his name to William H. Bonney, but his friends just called him "Kid." Tensions were high and the feud between Dolan and Tunstall escalated in to bloody violence. John Tunstall was brutally murder by members of Sheriff Brady’s posse and the Boys.

Pictured left to right:
John Tunstall, Alexander McSween, Lawrence Gustav Murphy & James Joseph Dolan and Pat Garrett.

Following Tunstall’s death, Bonney and several other former employees organized themselves into a vigilante group called "The Regulators" and swore revenge in what became known as the "Lincoln County War". At first the deputized Regulators tried to do things legally by serving warrants, but with the prejudice Sheriff Brady and the bias court system, they couldn’t count on justice being served. So they took the law in their own hands. They retaliated by killing Bill Morton, Frank Baker and William McCloskey. Then they ambushed Sheriff Brady and his deputy George Hindman in Lincoln. The Regulators revenge only made things worse, and warrants were put out for their arrest.

Dolan's gunmen and newly appointed sheriff, George Peppin and his men, had the McSween house surrounded with Alex McSween and many of the Regulators trapped in side. Dolan sent for Colonel Dudley at Fort Stanton for assistance. The colonel came with troops along with a Howitzer and Gatling gun. On the fifth day of the siege the Dolan side was getting impatient, so they set the house on fire. The Regulators made a run for it. McSween and three men were killed, but Bonney and the others escaped into the darkness. Bonney had left this time with thr Regulators with a reputation as one of the West’s most skilled gunmen, but he remained wanted for the murder of Sheriff Brady. He would spend the rest of his life on the run from the authorities, making a living by gambling and rustling cattle.

Governor Axtell was replaced by Lew Wallace, who was now trying to bring law and order to Lincoln. Bonney wrote to the governor that he was tired of running and would surrender to authorities and testify against the Dolan side to have his murder charges dropped. The governor agreed and promised Bonney a full pardon.

Bonney surrendered and testified in court, but the Santa Fe Ring had influence over the court system, so members of the Dolan side were acquitted. Prosecution attorney William Rynerson wanted to put the Bonney on trial for the murder of Sheriff Brady and Governor Wallace didn’t come through with the promised pardon.

On the run again and an outlaw, Bonney went back to rustling cattle. Unlike other Old West outlaws such as Jesse James, Cole Younger or Butch Cassidy, Billy the Kid didn’t make his living as a bandit.

The young gunslinger stole the occasional horse, but he never once held up a bank, train or even a stagecoach.

Outside of his gunfighting days with the Regulators, his main criminal enterprise was rustling cattle on the New Mexico plains. But he had gained fame and was singled out by the newspapers who had built him up into something more than he was. It was the newspapers who had given him a name "Billy the Kid."

The Kid was known for his easygoing personality, but he wasn’t afraid to draw his six-shooter when provoked. In a four-year span between 1877 and 1881, the baby-faced outlaw was involved in the shooting deaths of some nine men, at least four of whom he killed singlehandedly. The Kid himself boasted he has killed 21 men, one for each year he was alive. One particularly legendary gunfight unfolded in January 1880 at a New Mexico saloon. As the story goes, a drunk named Joe Grant was terrorizing the bar’s patrons and threatening to kill someone before the night was out. Sensing trouble, the Kid casually approached Grant and remarked, “That’s a mighty nice looking six-shooter you got.” He then slipped Grant’s gun out of its holster, spun its cylinder so that its next shot would be an empty chamber, and handed it back. It proved to be a wise move. Later that evening, Grant pulled the same pistol on the Kid and tried to shoot him in the back. When it didn’t fire, the Kid drew his own gun and shot Grant dead.

Since the end of the Lincoln County War, the Kid spent the next two years eluding the law and living in and around Fort Sumner. Then a posse from White Oaks surrounded the Kid and his gang at a station house. During the standoff the posse accidentally killed their own deputy, James Carlyle. The death was credited to the Kid and destroyed any ounce of sympathy the public had for him, and any chance he had left to get a pardon.

In late 1880, Lincoln County Sheriff Pat Garrett tracked the Kid to a cabin in Stinking Springs, New Mexico, and forced his surrender. The outlaw was found guilty of the murder of Sheriff William Brady and confined to the Lincoln courthouse. He was scheduled for a date with the hangman, but on the evening of April 28th, 1881, he engineered the most daring getaway of his criminal career. During a trip to the outhouse, the Kid slipped out of his handcuffs, ambushed Deputy James Bell and shot the man to death with his own pistol. He then armed himself with a double-barreled shotgun and gunned down a second guard, Deputy James Bell, who was crossing the street. Once in control of the courthouse, the Kid collected a small arsenal of weapons, cut his leg shackles with a pickaxe and fled town on a stolen horse. News of the brazen escape was soon reprinted in newspapers across the country, making the Kid the most wanted man in the West.

After his escape from death row, the Kid spent several months hiding out on the frontier and taking refuge with sympathetic locals in Fort Sumner, New Mexico. He neglected to keep a low profile, however, and it wasn’t long before Sheriff Pat Garrett and two deputies rode into town. On the night of July 14th, 1881, Garrett went to the home of rancher Peter Maxwell to question him about the outlaw’s whereabouts. As he questioned Maxwel, the Kid approached the house. When he noticed the silhouette of one of Garrett’s deputies on the porch, the Kid drew his pistol and backed toward the door, shouting, “Who’s that?” in Spanish and entered Maxwell’s darkened bedroom. Upon recognizing the Kid’s voice, Sheriff Garrett drew his six-shooter and fired off two rounds in his direction. One bullet struck the 21-year-old near his heart, killing him instantly. The next day Billy the Kid was buried at the Fort Sumner cemetery near his two fallen companions, Tom O’Folliard and Charlie Bowdre.

Pat Garrett became an Old West legend for killing Billy the Kid, and even though historical records show that the Kid’s body was positively identified by several different people the day after his shooting, as the years passed, rumors circulated that the Sheriff had either shot the wrong man or helped fake the outlaw’s death. During the following decades, legends persisted that Billy the Kid had survived, and a number of men claimed to be him including Ollie L. (Brushy Bill) Roberts, who lived in Mexico and the U.S. Southwest, rode in Wild West shows, and died in 1950 in Hico, Texas. Billy the Kid remains one of the most notorious figures from the era, and his life and likeness have been frequently dramatized in Western popular culture. A celebrity in his own time, his legend only grew after his death thanks to dime novels, television shows and Hollywood films. Beginning with the 1911 silent film "Billy the Kid," the gun-toting outlaw’s story has appeared on the big screen more than 50 times. Some of the most famous actors to play the Kid include Roy Rogers, Paul Newman, Val Kilmer and Emilio Estevez.

"Hey, Mr Peabody,
Isn't this page suppose to be about the Time Tunnel TV show?"

"Well, Sherman,
the editors tend to get a little distracted. I get that way too when I see a squirrel."

23. Pirates of Deadman's Island

February 17, 1967

"Let's try full power on the automaric setting."

- Dr. Raymond Swain

Doug and Tony have a run-in with pirates off the Barbary Coast in 1805 and help in the rescue of Armando, the nephew of the King of Spain, assisted by American Naval officer Stephane Decatur. At one point Doug and Armando are caught in a bombardment and seriously wounded. A doctor friend of Kirk's due for retirement, volunteers to go back despite the fact he has no chance of being returned.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Barney Slater

Guest starring: Victor Jory, Regis Toomey, James Anderson, Charles Bateman, Harry Lauter, Alex Montoya, Pepito Galindo

In the beginning of the episode, Tony tells Captain Beal that he has relatives in Philadelphia. James Darren is actually from Philadelphia.

During the opening sequence Tony asks the Captain if he would like to make a deal. Beal steps around the right side of the table to confront Tony. The next shot shows Doug and Tony standing side by side when Doug should be off to the left hand side of the table.

The Barbary Pirates were based on the coast of North Africa coast in modern day Libya. The pirates were for the most part were Arab Muslims. The pirates depicted here are European and dress as if it's 1705, not 1805.

The islands of the Mediterranean were not like the islands of the Caribbean. They were dryer and much less tropical.

At one point a runaway ship runs into the island. You can see the island move in response to the ships impact, revealing that the area stuck by the ship is a prop.

24. Chase Through Time

February 24, 1967

"In a million years a thousand civilizations can rise and fall.
Time travel was a lost art to them."

- Raul Nimon

Doug and Tony are transported to the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in 1547. Meanwhile, the saboteur Raul Nimon kills Dr. Alfred Stiles and plants a nuclear bomb with a timing device in the Tic-Toc complex then escapes through the time tunnel that is fixed. General Kirk orders the scientists to capture Nimon and discover where the bomb is hidden. However the tunnel is out of control and sends the trio to one million years in the future iand then back again to 1,000,000 B.C.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Carey Wilber

Guest starring: Robert Duvall, Vitina Marcus, Lew Gallo, Joe Ryan

In part of this episode, several characters are transported back to 1 million BC where they battle a dinosaur-like creature. But the dinosaurs were wiped out long before then (approx 65 million years ago).

When the travelers arrive in the past, Dr. Swain reports their location in time as 1,000,000 years BCE, in the "Pliocene period". There was a Pliocene epoch, but it was from 5.332 million to 2.588 million years before present, considerably earlier than their supposed location. While there is fossil evidence for very large insects and arthropods in the Carboniferous period, giant bees are not part of the fossil record; the largest known relative of bees is a winged ant that could reach a length of 2.5" and lived about 50 million years ago. The Pliocene epoch was part of the age of mammals, and well-known fauna of the time included elephants, armadillos, saber-tooth cats, and the human ancestor Homo Erectus.

At the start of the show at the time tunnel, Raul Nimon shoots a revolver equipped with a silencer. However, while a silencer can work with a pistol, it cannot work on a revolver. Revolvers have a small gap between the cylinder and the barrel of the gun, which is enough to allow the gunshot noise to escape when the revolver is fired.

25. The Death Merchant

March 3, 1967

"What's the matter with you? Don't you recognize me?"

- Dr. Doug Phillips

Arriving in Gettysburg in the 1860's, Doug and Tony are separated by an explosion which gives Tony amnesia. Doug falls in with the Union forces, while Tony becomes involved with the South and Sgt. Maddox when he is mistaken as a courier sent to buy gunpowder from an arms merchant, Michaels, who stole the supplies from the Union. Doug gets there first only to find the merchant is really Machiavelli! Machiavelli's pattern matches Tony's, and he was swept up and brought to Gettysburg by the Time Tunnel.

Director: Nathan Juran

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: Malachi Throne, John Crawford, Kevin Hagen, Kevin O'Neal

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought in Pennsylvania during the first three days of July 1863. It was the Confederate Army's final attempt to invade the United States and force an armistice. After failing to secure the region, the army withdrew to Virginia, where its tactics changed from attack to defense. This battle is often considered the most important turning point of the American Civil War.

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 to 1527, right) was an Italian philosopher, journalist, playwright and all round "Renaissance Man", based in the city-state of Firenze/Florence. Though he wrote many plays, biographies, and encyclopedic histories, he is best known for his short 1513 pamphlet "Il Principe" ("The Prince"), a psychological study of Italian heads of state from the time. The pamphlet observes that cruelty was necessary to maintain political power, and its two most famous theses are often paraphrased as "it is better to be feared than loved" and "the ends justify the means". Machiavelli was not an arms dealer and assassin as depicted here. The writers may have confused Machiavelli with Prince Cesare Borgia, the subject of one of his writings.

In The Time Tunnel: Invasion (episode 15), Doug is brainwashed into thinking he's a Nazi, and he is instructed to kill Tony. In this episode, Tony is injured in an explosion and suffers amnesia. When he regains his strength, he believes he is a Confederate solider. Believing Doug to be the enemy, he sets out the goal to kill Doug for himself.

During the scene where Tony and the Major split up and cross the river, you can see a modern highway bridge in the background.

In the opening scene, one of the soldiers begins to fall to the ground before the bomb blows up behind him.

When Doug and the Major reach the other side of the river, the Major takes off his boots and pours water out of them. He is soaked from being in the river. However, Doug seems completely dry, even though he was supposed to follow the Major across the river.

Though set in summer, some scenes show the trees are bare and the ground is covered with dead leaves, indicating it is late autumn. Other scenes correctly show the trees full of green leaves.

26. Attack of the Barbarians

March 10, 1967

"Well, we are just travelers, same as you."

- Dr. Doug Phillips

Doug and Tony are captured by the Mongols in 1287, led by Genghis Khan's grandson Baku. Doug and Tony help Marco Polo stop an attack and Tony meets and falls in love with the daughter of Kubla Kahn.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: Robert Hamner

Guest starring: John Saxon, Vitina Marcus, Arthur Batanides, Paul Mantee

... the 13th Century Silk Road to China

Marco Polo (left) was only 15 years old when he left Venice on the great adventure that took him to the court of Kublai Khan. His father Niccolo and his uncle Maffeo Polo had made the journey previously. Marco barely knew his father, who had spent Marco's childhood as a traveling merchant when they left on their quest. But the death of Marco's mother convinced Niccolo that Marco should accompany him on the return trip, which lasted 24 years (1271-1295).

Marco Polo did not bring pasta back to Venice from China. It is one of the most famous legends out there about the adventurer, but pasta had made its way into the cuisine of Italy prior to Marco's birth. He did, however, introduce the concept of paper money, which was used in Mongolia in the 13th century, but not in Europe.

The Travels of Marco Polo [the English title] was not written by Marco, but rather by the 13th-century romantic author Rustichello of Pisa. The two met while in prison, where Marco dictated the stories of his travels and his adventures at the court of Kublai Khan. Marco was a prisoner of war, having been captured in a battle between Venice and its rival city-state Genoa in 1298. There are no longer any original copies remaining of the manuscript, initially titled Il Milione (The Million) and released in Italian, French and Latin. The earliest remaining handwritten copies (the printing press wasn't invented until 1439) of the travelogue are not always consistent in details, but do remain true to the stories.

Marco served as a special envoy for the great Kublai Khan (right), providing the leader with useful reports from the various trips he took on his behalf all around Asia. This included three years during which he served as the governor of the city of Yangchow. The Polos finally grew homesick, but Kublai Khan valued their services so much, he refused to let them go. They were finally able to return home when they convinced him that they should be the escorts for Princess Kokachin, who was to marry his great nephew, the Il-Khan, who ruled Persia. The journey to Persia was a perilous one, and many died, but the Polos arrived safely. Kublai Khan, too, died while they were on this mission, so they were able to return to Venice following the wedding.

Not a lot is known about Marco Polo after his return to Venice in 1295. It is posited that he returned to the family merchant business, but it is known that he married and had three daughters: Moretta, Fantina, and Bellela. He lived to be 70 years old.

There are those who believe that Marco Polo never took the journey down the Silk Road to China and in fact, made it no further than the Black Sea. They believe that the adventures described in his book were made up from stories he heard from others along the road he did travel. It doesn't help his case that there were many exaggerations in The Travels of Marco Polo, plus there were also interesting exclusions, such as the fact that he failed to mention the use of chopsticks for eating, or that he had seen the Great Wall. It also helps these naysayers that no mention of Marco Polo has been found in any historic Chinese records. On the other hand, the majority of historians are prone to believe the Marco did indeed make it to China and work in the service of Kublai Kahn, especially because of the preponderance of cultural information in the book. Plus, there are those who have used his journal to retrace his footsteps, and they declare the geography to be so accurate, they believe the trip happened. On his deathbed, Marco was encouraged to admit that The Travels of Marco Polo was a work of fiction, but to his dying breath he declared, "I did not tell half of what I saw."

"Hey, Mr Peabody,
let's play a game.
I'll go first...

Go to your room."

Batu died in 1255. Kublai Khan started his reign in 1260. Kublai and Batu would not be opponents.

When Doug and Tony are first discovered by the Mongols, in the large grassy clearing, there are obvious modern tire tracks everywhere.

By 1287, the Chinese had been aware of the existence of gunpowder for about 500 years, and had been using explosive grenades in warfare for at least a century. Its properties as a weapon would have been familiar to the Mongols, who were rulers of China during the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, which lasted from 1271 to 1368.

Doug Phillips calls Marco Polo "...the first European to explore the Orient..." On Polo's famous trip east, he accompanied his father and uncle, who had already been to China and met Kublai Khan before him. The difference, of course, is that Marco dictated a memoir of his trip while his elders did not.

Doug Phillips implies that the black powder that Polo is taking back to Europe lacks nitre (aka potassium nitrate); however, surviving Chinese records from the ninth century show that existing formulae (two centuries before Polo's time) contained from one-quarter to one-half nitrate content. Gunpowder without nitrate would not, in fact, be sufficiently explosive to make even the firecrackers Polo describes.

Gunpowder must be tightly confined in order to explode; The containers used were too fragile.

Anne MacGregor reports that Sarit was the "...only daughter of Kublai Khan who married a dark-haired, fair-skinned stranger from a faraway place..."; the notion that she is the only daughter is repeated by Marco Polo. Kublai Khan was known to have had at least three daughters; the only recorded marriage was his daughter Khutugh Beki, who married a Korean crown prince and became empress of Goryeo, a Korean kingdom allied with the Mongol rulers of China.

The helmets and other costumes shown in the battle scenes do not match up with those in the close-up scenes, undoubtedly due to the use of stock footage for the large-scale fighting. Similar mismatches occur between the distant and close-up views of the fort. Also, the plumes on the Europeans' helmets may have been good for ceremonial display, but on soldiers operating from a defensive position all they do is provide targets.

When the soldiers are loading equipment into the tunnel, their shadows and the shadow of the equipment are clearly visible on the backdrop used to make the tunnel look "infinite".

27. Merlin the Magician

March 17, 1967

"Doug's dead."

- Dr. Ann MacGregor

Merlin the Magician pulls Tony and Doug from their journey through time and sends them on to 544 A.D., Cornwall England. There they meet a young pre-King Arthur fighting off an invasion of Vikings. The Tic-Toc Project staff attempt to recover Doug and Tony but Merlin intervenes again.

Director: Harry Harris

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Christopher Cary, Lisa Jak, Jim McMullan, Vincent Beck

Footage of the attack and defense of the castle, including shots of the "viking army" on the road as they approach the castle, is footage from Prince Valiant (1954) starring Robert Wagner.

The title refers to the court magician and advisor to the legendary King Arthur who founded the Knights of the Round Table. Merlin was first mentioned in 1136 and was a compilation of several historical and legendary figures under the name "Merlin Ambrosius" or in Welsh "Myrddin Emrys".

These events take place in 544 AD and has Vikings in England approximately 250 years before the Viking Age and their first recorded appearance in the British Isles. Historians date the beginning of the Viking Age as 8 June 793, the day of the first Viking raid on the abbey at Lindisfarne. In 544 the invaders would have been the Saxons from Germany, not the Vikings from Norway.

The outlandish horns on the helmets and hats of the "Vikings" have no basis in fact. Helmets worn by Vikings were of a simple conical shape, occasionally featuring nose-guards and ear-guards. The purpose of a helmet is to protect the head. A projection such as a horn would catch, rather than deflect, a downward blow, snapping the head violently to one side and breaking the wearer's neck. Pre-Viking era priests and shamans sometimes wore headdresses festooned with antlers, which gave rise to the mistaken notion that their helmets were horned. The notion that Viking helmets had horns seems to originate in 19th-century German theatrical productions.

When Arthur returns from visiting Guinevere, the shadow of the boom mic can be quickly seen on the battlement just above Tony.

Merlin "freezes" time in the control room in the beginning yet the lights on the instrument panels continue to blink on and off at their normal speed.

After Tony frees Arthur (who by the way is tied with ropes and not chained as Tony was) his tunic is conveniently nearby to put on but not the long sleeved shirt that goes under it. However later Arthur is shown wearing it under his tunic.

Merlin turns the soldiers coming to the rescue into Vikings saying this was his last bit of magic however he then magically disappears.

To find out from the Viking guard where Arthur is Tony dunks his head twice under the water in the barrel and the guard opens his mouth wide enough to reveal his modern dental fillings.

28. The Kidnappers

March 24, 1967

"Doug? Tony? I- I was taken by force. Kidnapped."

- Dr. Ann MacGrego

After Time Tunnel member Doctor Ann MacGregor is kidnapped by a time traveler from another planet. Tony and Doug are sent there to rescue her on a distant planet in the Canopis system in year 8433 A.D. Tony and Doug find themselves in a futuristic complex and meet zombiefied people from different time periods and locales, while a mysterious voice provides historical detail.

Director: Sobey Martin

Writer: William Welch

Guest starring: Michael Ansara, Del Monroe

At one point, the Curator (Michael Ansara) mentions that Tony graduated high school in 1954 in Philadelphia. This is actually true. James Darren did indeed graduate from a Philadelphia high school in 1954.

The guard in the interior scientist office is played by Glen Colbert, brother of Robert Colbert (Doug).

Guest star Michael Ansara was married to I Dream of Jeannie star Barbara Eden.

Doug asks Ann if the Time Tunnel had a fix on them when she was captured. But in the immediately preceding scene General Kirk told them directly that the Tunnel had a fix and was preparing to transfer all three of them.

The star Canopus is described as being 98 light years away from Earth. In reality, Canopus is 310 light years away from Earth. Traveling 98 light years would get you to Kappa Delphini.

When Ray and the General are trying to use the metal data card that they found the magnetic tape reels on the computer behind them are shown turning one way then the other. Magnetic tape reels used on computers as such turn in only one direction.

Adolf Hitler is portrayed as a young man at the time of his death, the actor playing him was 28, but he was 56 at the time he committed suicide.

The aliens are shown to have silver skin. However, at one point when Ott raises his left hand, the actor's skin tone is visible where the silver paint was not applied.

29. Raiders from Outer Space

March 31, 1967

"If so nothing has been lost but your life."

- Alien Planet Leader

Tony and Doug arrive in Khartoum on November 2nd, 1883, in the middle of a battle between British and Arab forces. However, two aliens take them prisoner with plans to conquer Earth with missiles, that will be ready to launch in just two hours. To keep Project Tic-Toc from interfering with their plans the aliens send a bomb back in time through the Time Tunnel.

Director: Nathan Juran

Writer: Bob Duncan / Wanda Duncan

Guest starring: John Crawford, Kevin Hagen, Wesley Lau

Inside the alien's cave can be seen numerous props from Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea including the Seaview's navigation chart and missile silos.

Tony and Doug arrive in the Sudan in the midst of the Siege of Khartoum on November 2, 1883. However, the siege lasted from March 13, 1884 to January 26, 1885.

After the alien base has been destroyed, Tony Newman touches a large rock that is supposedly embedded in the desert ground, yet the rock moves.

30. Town of Terror

April 7, 1967

"What's that suppose to mean? What kind of tunnel is that?"

- Pete

Doug and Tony arrive in a brick basement on the North Atlantic coast in 1978, that has advanced electrical equipment. They soon discover a group of aliens are preparing to steal Earth's oxygen. The alien androids infiltrate the Project Tic-Toc base, seal it off, and start sucking out the oxygen through the Tunnel itself.

Director: Herschel Daugherty

Writer: Carey Wilber

Guest starring: Gary Haynes, Heather Young, Mabel Albertson, Vincent Beck, Kelly Thordsen

Due to The Time Tunnel (1966) being abruptly canceled, the series seems to end with a cliffhanger. There was no "series finale" which would have shown the end of Doug & Tony's adventures and their return home. The episode ends with footage from the first episode aboard the Titanic. Some viewers and critics have interpreted the conclusion to be that Doug & Tony were stuck in an eternal loop of repeating their 30 time travel experiences for all time. The NBC-TV timetravel series Timeless (2016 - 2018) also ends with it's heroes and the plot looping back to the begining of the first episode.

Even though the show ended with this episode, the plans for the proposed second season were to have Doug and Tony successfully come home. After the bugs were worked out they then would be able to move though time to fix any anomalies their travels might have caused or use it for various other purposes.

When Tony and Doug first encounter "Sarah Pettinghill", she mentions she has a batch of biscuits rising in the kitchen. Biscuits, being a quick bread, contain baking powder and do not need to rise like traditional yeast dough.

During the storm near the end, the trees and bushes in the foreground are strongly swaying and blowing around, but those in the background are not moving at all. Also, the sky is bright blue, even though there is supposed to be a storm raging.

In the town, supposedly just about all of the residents are "frozen", yet many of them move.


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